As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 30, 2021
Registration No. 333-254718
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
AMENDMENT NO. 1
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
NUVVE HOLDING CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of||(Primary Standard Industrial||(I.R.S. Employer|
|incorporation or organization)||Classification Code Number)||Identification Number)|
2468 Historic Decatur Road
Diego, California 92106
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Nuvve Holding Corp.
2468 Historic Decatur Road
San Diego, California 92106
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
David Alan Miller, Esq.
Eric Schwartz, Esq.
The Chrysler Building
405 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10174
Telephone: (212) 818-8800
Facsimile: (212) 818-8881
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer ☐||Accelerated filer ☐|
|Non-accelerated filer ☒||Smaller reporting company ☒|
|Emerging growth company ☒|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
| Title of each class of |
securities to be registered (1)
| Amount |
to be registered (1)
offering price per
| Amount of|
|Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share||2,778,750||(3)||$||14.79||$||41,097,713||$||4,483.76|
|Warrants to purchase Common Stock||2,707,500||(4)||$||—||$||—||$||—||(5)|
|(1)||Pursuant to Rule 416(a) of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement also covers any additional securities which may become issuable to prevent dilution from stock splits, stock dividends and similar events.|
|(2)||Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the amount of the registration fee, based upon the average of the high and low prices of the shares of common stock, as reported by the Nasdaq Capital Market on March 23, 2021, in accordance with Rule 457(c) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.|
|(3)||Consists of (i) 1,425,000 shares of common stock, and (ii) 1,353,750 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of 2,707,500 warrants, that were issued in connection with the PIPE Investment (as defined below) and are being registered for sale by the selling securityholders named in this registration statement. The 1,353,750 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the warrants also are being registered for initial issuance, solely to the extent the warrants are publicly sold prior to their exercise.|
|(4)||Consists of 2,707,500 warrants, each to purchase one-half of one share of common stock, that were issued in connection with the PIPE Investment and are being registered for sale by the selling securityholders named in this registration statement.|
|(5)||In accordance with Rule 457(i), the entire registration fee for the warrants is allocated to the shares of common stock underlying the warrants, and no separate fee is payable for the Warrants.|
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
|The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.|
|Preliminary Prospectus||Subject to Completion||Dated March 30, 2021|
NUVVE HOLDING CORP.
2,778,750 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK (For Resale)
2,707,500 WARRANTS (For Resale)
1,353,750 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK (For Issuance)
This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”) of (A) up to 2,778,750 shares of common stock, including (i) 1,425,000 shares originally issued in a private placement at the closing of the Business Combination (as defined below), and (ii) up to 1,353,750 shares issuable upon the exercise of the warrants, and (B) up to 2,707,500 warrants. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock or warrants by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus. We also are offering 1,353,750 shares of common stock for initial issuance upon exercise of the warrants, solely to the extent the warrants are publicly sold prior to their exercise.
We are registering the securities for resale pursuant to the Selling Securityholders’ registration rights under certain agreements between us and the Selling Securityholders. Our registration of the securities covered by this prospectus does not mean that the Selling Securityholders will offer or sell any of the shares of common stock or warrants. The Selling Securityholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of their shares of common stock or warrants publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock or warrants by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus. We provide more information about how the Selling Securityholders may sell the shares of common stock or warrants in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.”
Our common stock and warrants are listed for trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “NVVE” and “NVVEW,” respectively. On March 29, 2021 the closing price of our common stock was $10.20 and the closing price of our warrants was $1.69.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” on page 4 in this prospectus and elsewhere in any supplements for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is ____, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS||ii|
|NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTOR SUMMARY||iii|
|USE OF PROCEEDS||29|
|MARKET INFORMATION FOR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY||30|
|SELECTED FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF NUVVE||31|
|SELECTED FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF NEWBORN||32|
|UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS||33|
|NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION||36|
|MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS||39|
|CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS||79|
|DESCRIPTION OF OUR SECURITIES||87|
|PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION||92|
|WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION||94|
|INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS||F-1|
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the Selling Securityholders may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such Selling Securityholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. This prospectus also relates to the issuance by us of the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of any warrants. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock underlying the warrants pursuant to this prospectus, except with respect to amounts received by us upon the exercise of the warrants for cash.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or the Selling Securityholders may offer. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We and the Selling Securityholders have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information and, if provided, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us or the Selling Securityholders. This prospectus shall not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy offered securities in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offering or solicitation. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, in this prospectus:
|●||“PubCo,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and similar terms refer to Nuvve Holding Corp., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Nuvve Corporation after the business combination described below;|
|●||“Nuvve” refers to Nuvve Corporation, a Delaware corporation acquired by us in the business combination described below; and|
|●||“Newborn” refers to Newborn Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands company and our predecessor.|
On March 19, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), PubCo consummated the business combination (the “Business Combination”) contemplated by that certain merger agreement, dated as of November 11, 2020 and amended as of February 20, 2021 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among Newborn, Nuvve, PubCo, Nuvve Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of PubCo (“Merger Sub”), and Ted Smith, as the representative of the Nuvve stockholders. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the Business Combination was effected through (i) the reincorporation of Newborn by the merger of Newborn with and into PubCo, with PubCo surviving as the publicly traded entity (the “Reincorporation Merger”), and (ii) immediately after the Reincorporation Merger, the merger of Merger Sub with and into Nuvve, with Nuvve surviving as the wholly-owned subsidiary of PubCo (the “Acquisition Merger”). On the Closing Date, and in connection with the closing of the Business Combination, PubCo changed its name to Nuvve Holding Corp.
NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements, other than statements of present or historical fact included in this prospectus, our future financial performance, strategy, expansion plans, future operations, future operating results, estimated revenues, losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. Any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination, and the financial conditions, results of operations, earnings outlook and prospects of Nuvve and other statements about the period following the consummation of the Business Combination. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “believe,” “estimate,” “continue,” “goal,” “project” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions.
We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We caution you that these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control.
The section in this prospectus titled “Risk Factors” and the other cautionary language discussed in this prospectus provide examples of other risks, uncertainties, and potential events that may cause actual developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including those relating to:
|●||Nuvve’s early stage of development, its history of net losses, and its expectation for losses to continue in the future;|
|●||Nuvve’s ability to manage growth effectively;|
|●||Nuvve’s reliance on charging station manufacturing and other partners;|
|●||existing and future competition in the EV charging market;|
|●||pandemics and health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|●||Nuvve’s ability to increase sales of its products and services, especially to fleet operators,|
|●||Nuvve’s participation in the energy markets;|
|●||the interconnection of Nuvve’s GIVeTM platform to the electrical grid;|
|●||significant payments under the agreement pursuant which Nuvve acquired certain of its key patents;|
|●||Nuvve’s international operations, including related tax, compliance, market and other risks;|
|●||Nuvve’s ability to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical and vehicle engineering personnel;|
|●||inexperience of Nuvve’s management in operating a public company;|
|●||acquisitions by Nuvve of other businesses;|
|●||the rate of adoption of EVs;|
|●||the rate of technological change in the industry;|
|●||Nuvve’s ability to protect its intellectual property rights;|
|●||Nuvve’s investment in research and development;|
|●||Nuvve’s ability to expand its sales and marketing capabilities;|
|●||Nuvve’s ability to raise additional funds when needed;|
|●||the existence of identified material weaknesses in Nuvve’s internal control over financial reporting;|
|●||electric utility statutes and regulations and changes to such statutes or regulations;|
|●||volatility in the trading price of Nuvve’s securities; and|
|●||Nuvve’s status as an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act.|
Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize or should any of the assumptions made by the management of Nuvve prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements concerning any matters addressed in this prospectus and attributable to Nuvve or any person acting on their behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this prospectus. Except to the extent required by applicable law or regulation, Nuvve undertakes no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
This summary contains basic information about us and our business but does not contain all of the information that is important to your investment decision. You should carefully read this summary together with the more detailed information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference before making an investment decision. Investors should carefully consider the information set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus, including those described in documents incorporated by reference herein.
Overview of Nuvve
We are a green energy technology company that provides, directly and through business ventures with our partners, a globally-available, commercial vehicle-to-grid (“V2G”) technology platform that enables electric vehicle (“EV”) batteries to store and resell unused energy back to the local electric grid and provide other grid services. Simply put, we bridge the gap between transportation and energy. Our proprietary V2G technology — Nuvve’s Grid Integrated Vehicle (GIVeTM) platform — has the potential to refuel the next generation of EV fleets through cutting-edge, bi-directional charging solutions. We believe our GIVeTM platform is the most advanced V2G platform on the market, as it is the only one qualified by multiple grid system operators around the world to provide grid services.
Our mission is to lower the cost of EV ownership while supporting the integration of renewable energy sources including solar and wind. We plan to achieve this goal by providing its enterprise customers (fleet and building managers, municipalities, and public organizations such as school districts) and consumers, the technology they need to transform their EVs into grid-integrated energy storage resources when those vehicles are plugged in, while guaranteeing the expected level of charge at the time the driver needs it for transportation. Storage resources are critical to the effective utilization of renewable energy sources, many of which exhibit volatile energy generation based on environmental conditions, rather than based on demand. Since our founding in 2010, we have been responsible for successful V2G projects on five continents and are deploying commercial services worldwide.
Our proprietary V2G technology enables us to link multiple EV batteries into a virtual power plant to provide bi-directional services to the electrical grid in a qualified and secure manner. Virtual power plants can generate revenue by selling excess power to utility companies or utilizing the saved power to reduce building energy peak consumption. Nuvve is capable of providing many levels of vehicle-grid integration and V2G services such as time of use optimization (“TOU”), demand response, demand charge management and wholesale energy market participation, thereby providing revenues from grid services as well as utility bill savings behind the meter.
Background of the Offering
On March 19, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), the parties to the Merger Agreement consummated the Business Combination. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the Business Combination was effected in two steps: (i) Newborn reincorporated to the State of Delaware by merging with and into PubCo, with PubCo surviving as the publicly traded entity, which we refer to as the Reincorporation Merger; and (ii) immediately after the Reincorporation Merger, Merger Sub merged with and into Nuvve, with Nuvve surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of PubCo, which we refer to as the Acquisition Merger.
Immediately prior to the effectiveness of the Reincorporation Merger and the Acquisition Merger, PubCo filed its Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation with the Delaware Secretary of State, pursuant to which, among other things, PubCo changed its name to “Nuvve Holding Corp.” and adopted certain other changes that the PubCo board of directors deemed appropriate for an operating public company.
In connection with the Business Combination, on November 11, 2020, Newborn entered into subscription agreements (the “Subscription Agreements”) with certain accredited investors (the “PIPE Investors”), pursuant to which, immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination, the PIPE Investors purchased 1,425,000 ordinary shares of Newborn, at a purchase price of $10.00 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $14,250,000 (the “PIPE”). The PIPE Investors also received warrants to purchase 1,353,750 ordinary shares of Newborn that were identical to Newborn’s other outstanding warrants. Also on November 11, 2020, Nuvve entered into a bridge loan agreement with an accredited investor, pursuant to which, on November 17, 2020, the investor purchased a $4,000,000 convertible debenture from Nuvve (the “Bridge Loan”), which automatically converted into shares of Nuvve common stock immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination.
Upon the closing of the Reincorporation Merger, each of Newborn’s outstanding units was automatically separated into its constituent securities and Newborn’s outstanding securities (including the Newborn ordinary shares and Newborn warrants purchased by the PIPE Investors) were converted into a like number of equivalent securities of PubCo, except that each of Newborn’s rights was converted automatically into one-tenth of one share of PubCo common stock in accordance with its terms.
Upon the closing of the Acquisition Merger, each share of Nuvve common stock outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Acquisition Merger (including the shares issued upon conversion of Nuvve’s preferred stock and upon conversion of the Bridge Loan as described above) automatically was converted into approximately 0.21240305 shares (the “Closing Exchange Ratio”) of PubCo common stock, for an aggregate of 9,122,996 shares of PubCo common stock. Each outstanding option to purchase Nuvve common stock (“Nuvve Options”) was assumed by PubCo and converted into an option to purchase a number of shares of PubCo common stock equal to the number of shares of Nuvve common stock subject to such option immediately prior to the effective time multiplied by the Closing Exchange Ratio, for an aggregate of 1,303,610 shares of PubCo common stock, at an exercise price equal to the exercise price immediately prior to the effective time divided by the Closing Exchange Ratio.
Pursuant to a purchase and option agreement, dated as of November 11, 2020 (the “Purchase and Option Agreement”), between PubCo and EDF Renewables, Inc. (“EDF Renewables”), a former stockholder of Nuvve and the beneficial owner of more than 5% of PubCo common stock, immediately after the closing, PubCo repurchased 600,000 shares of PubCo common stock from EDF Renewables at a price of $10.00 per share. In addition, on the Closing Date, EDF Renewables exercised its option to sell an additional $2,000,000 of shares of PubCo common stock back to PubCo at a price per share of $14.882 (the average closing price over the five preceding trading days).
Each PubCo warrant is exercisable for one-half of one share of share of PubCo common stock, at an exercise price of $11.50 per full share.
Our common stock and warrants are currently listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “NVVE” and “NVVEW,” respectively.
The rights of holders of our common stock and warrants are governed by our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), our Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Bylaws”), the Warrant Agreement, dated as of February 13, 2010 and amended as of March 19, 2021, between PubCo and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company (the “Warrant Agreement”), and the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”). See the section entitled “Description of our Securities.”
PubCo were was incorporated in Delaware on November 10, 2020 under the name “NB Merger Corp.” We were formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Newborn for the purpose of effecting the Business Combination and to serve as the publicly traded parent company of Nuvve following the Business Combination. In connection with the Business Combination, we changed our name to “Nuvve Holding Corp.”
Nuvve was incorporated in Delaware law on October 15, 2010 under the name “Nuvve Corporation.” As part of the Business Combination, Nuvve merged with Merger Sub, with Nuvve surviving as PubCo’s wholly owned subsidiary.
Newborn was incorporated in the Cayman Islands on April 12, 2019 under the name “Newborn Acquisition Corp.” Newborn was formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization, or similar business combination with one or more businesses. As part of the Business Combination, Newborn reincorporated to Delaware by merging with and into PubCo, with PubCo surviving the merger.
Our principal executive offices are located at 2468 Historic Decatur Road, San Diego, California 92106. Our telephone number is (619) 456-5161. Our website address is www.nuvve.com. Information contained on our website or connected thereto does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
|Issuer||Nuvve Holding Corp.|
|Issuance of Common Stock|
Shares of Common Stock Offered by us
|Up to 1,353,750 shares of common stock which are issuable upon the exercise of the 2,707,500 outstanding warrants issued to the PIPE Investors in connection with the consummation of the PIPE. The shares are being offered for initial issuance solely to the extent the warrants are publicly sold prior to their exercise.|
|Shares of Common Stock Outstanding Prior to Offering||18,761,124 shares (as of March 19, 2021).|
|Warrants Outstanding Prior to Offering||8,730,000 shares (as of March 19, 2021).|
|Shares of Common Stock Outstanding Assuming Exercise of All Warrants||20,114,874 shares (based on total shares outstanding as of March 19, 2021).|
Exercise Price of Warrants
|$11.50 per share, subject to adjustments as described elsewhere in this prospectus.|
|Use of proceeds||We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $15.6 million from the exercise of the warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the warrants for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”|
|Resale of Common Stock and Warrants|
|Shares of Common Stock Offered by the Selling Securityholders||2,778,750 shares of common stock, including (i) 1,425,000 shares originally issued to the PIPE Investors, and (ii) up to 1,353,750 shares issuable upon the exercise of the warrants issued to the PIPE Investors.|
|Warrants Offered by the Selling Securityholders||2,707,500 warrants|
|Redemption||The warrants are redeemable in certain circumstances. See “Description of our Securities—Warrants” for further discussion.|
|Use of Proceeds||We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock or warrants by the Selling Securityholders.|
|Market for Common Stock and Warrants||Our common stock and warrants are currently traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “NVVE” and “NVVEW,” respectively.|
|Risk Factors||See the section titled “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider before investing in our securities.|
Investing in our securities involves risks. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, in addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed above under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factor Summary,” you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth herein. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. As a result, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additionally, the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may become material and adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to Nuvve’s Business
Nuvve is an early stage company with a history of net losses, and it expects losses to continue in the future. If it does not achieve and sustain profitability, its financial condition could suffer.
As a relatively new business, Nuvve has not yet demonstrated a sustained ability to generate sufficient revenue from the sales of its technology and services or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization of its platform. Consequently, any assessment you make about Nuvve’s current business or future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if Nuvve had a longer operating history and had been able to reduce some of the uncertainties set forth elsewhere in this prospectus. Further, Nuvve’s limited financial track record, without sufficient revenue yet from Nuvve’s expected future principal business, may be of limited reference value for your assessment of Nuvve’s business. For example, although to date a substantial portion of Nuvve’s revenues have been derived from grant-funded projects, Nuvve expects to rely primarily on revenue from commercial projects in the future.
Nuvve has not yet achieved profitability and has experienced substantial net losses, and it expects to continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future. Nuvve incurred net losses of approximately $4.9 million and $3.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, Nuvve had an accumulated deficit of approximately $20.5 million. Further, Nuvve expects to incur significant costs in the future, in particular research and development and commercialization costs related to its GIVe platform. As Nuvve operates in the highly competitive EV charging equipment and service market based in part on the quality of technology, Nuvve is under pressure to incur research and development and other expenses with a potential negative impact on Nuvve’s short-term profitability. Historically, Nuvve has been able to raise funds primarily through issuances of equity and convertible notes to support its business operations, although there can be no assurance Nuvve will be successful in raising funds in the future, on satisfactory terms or at all.
If Nuvve’s revenue grows slower than it anticipates, or if Nuvve’s operating expenses are higher than it expects, Nuvve may not be able to achieve profitability and its financial condition could suffer. Nuvve can give no assurance that it will ever achieve profitable operations. Nuvve’s technology products and services may fail to realize their sales potential as expected due to competition, insufficient market demand, product defects, or any other reason. Therefore, even after Nuvve starts to generate revenue from the sales of its technology products and services in the future, Nuvve may still not be profitable for an extended period of time or may not become profitable as expected, or at all. Even if Nuvve achieves profitability in the future, it may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods. Whether Nuvve can achieve cash flow levels sufficient to support its operations cannot be accurately predicted. Unless such cash flow levels are achieved, Nuvve may need to borrow additional funds or sell its debt or equity securities, or some combination of both, to provide funding for its operations. Such additional funding may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Nuvve expects to invest in growth for the foreseeable future. If Nuvve fails to manage growth effectively, its business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
The growth and expansion of Nuvve’s business will place a significant strain on management, operations, financial infrastructure and corporate culture. Nuvve expects its future expansion to include research and development efforts and broader deployment of its platform; hiring and training new personnel; establishing or expanding design, production, sales and service facilities; expanding into additional international markets; and implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes.
Nuvve may need to expend significant time and expense on research and development and on training any newly hired employees. Research and development is inherently uncertain, and Nuvve’s efforts may not lead to commercially viable products and services in the short-term or at all. Accordingly, Nuvve may receive no return on its research and development investment. Competition for individuals with experience in relevant technology areas is intense, and Nuvve may not be able to attract, integrate, train, motivate or retain additional highly qualified personnel. In addition, Nuvve’s information technology systems and its internal control over financial reporting and procedures may not be adequate to support its future operations. To manage growth in operations and personnel, Nuvve will need to continue to improve its operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures.
Failure to manage growth effectively could result in difficulty or delays in attracting new customers, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new products and services or enhancing existing products and services, loss of customers, information security vulnerabilities or other operational difficulties, any of which could adversely affect its business performance and operating results.
Nuvve relies on charging station manufacturing and other partners, and a loss of any such partner or interruption in the partner’s production could have a material adverse effect on Nuvve’s business.
If Nuvve experiences a significant increase in demand for its charging stations and services, or if it needs to replace an existing supplier, it may not be possible to supplement or replace them on acceptable terms, which may undermine its ability to deliver products to customers in a timely manner. For example, it may take a significant amount of time to identify a manufacturer that has the capability and resources to build charging stations in sufficient volume. Identifying suitable suppliers and manufacturers could be an extensive process that requires Nuvve to become satisfied with their quality control, technical capabilities, responsiveness and service, financial stability, regulatory compliance, and labor and other ethical practices. Accordingly, a loss of any significant suppliers or manufacturers, or an interruption in their production, could have an adverse effect on Nuvve’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Moreover, the bi-directional EV charging station market as a whole is relatively new and charging station manufacturers are even more limited and requirements are evolving. Though Nuvve works with multiple vendors, it is likely that at the time a new product is launched and new requirements are rolled out, Nuvve may rely on a single vendor. Certifications might also be delayed, as tests are not always available at the time of commercial launch. Certain of these requirements might at times apply to technology inside the vehicles, in which case such risks could also be pushed on the vehicle OEM’s. To the extent Nuvve relies on a single supplier, the risks to Nuvve would be intensified.
Nuvve currently faces competition from a number of companies, and expects to face significant competition in the future as the market for EV charging develops.
The EV charging market as a whole is relatively new and competition is still developing. Nuvve primarily competes with less advanced charge point operator EV charge management platforms providing fleet charging services without bi-directional capabilities, such as ChargePoint, Mobility House, EnelX, Shell-NewMotion, Blink and Ovo Energy. There are also additional entrants into the connected EV charging station equipment market, such as General Electric, SemaCharge, EVConnect, Fermata and Greenlots. Nuvve expects this market to become increasingly competitive as new entrants enter the growing market. Nuvve’s products and services compete on the basis of product capability (such as V2G capability), performance and features, total cost of ownership, sales capabilities, financial stability, brand recognition, product reliability and size of installed base.
Nuvve’s V2G platform, and the revenue it generates, allows Nuvve to provide its customers with a lower total cost of electric vehicle ownership through benefits such as reduced charger costs, low or free energy costs to drive, fleet management tools, and yearly maintenance. Because its competitors’ platforms are less advanced in providing V2G services, Nuvve believes it faces limited direct competition. However, Nuvve’s competitors are developing sales relationships with the same fleet managers, and especially new electric fleet managers, as Nuvve. Despite Nuvve’s belief in its technological and price advantages, fleet managers are often less familiar with EVs and the variety of charging solutions available now and in the future, and as a result decisions by fleet managers may be delayed or they may choose the services of one of Nuvve’s competitors even in cases where Nuvve’s offering is superior.
In addition, large early stage markets, such as Europe, require early engagement across verticals and customers to gain market share, and ongoing effort to scale channels, installers, teams and processes. While Nuvve has established a business venture with Électricité de France (“EDF”), the business venture will require investment of time and funds in order to support the growth within the European countries it is targeting. The business venture may not be successful in penetrating this market, as a result of a failure by Nuvve’s partner to prioritize the project or as a result of competition by other competitors in the European market. In such event, Nuvve may not receive a return of its investment, which could have an adverse effect on its financial condition.
Further, Nuvve’s current or potential competitors may have, or be acquired by third parties who have, greater available resources than Nuvve does. As a result, competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than Nuvve to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements and may have the ability to initiate or withstand substantial price competition. In addition, competitors may in the future establish cooperative relationships with vendors of complementary products, technologies or services to increase the availability of their solutions in the marketplace. This competition may also materialize in the form of costly intellectual property disputes or litigation.
New competitors or alliances may emerge in the future that have greater market share, more widely adopted proprietary technologies, greater marketing expertise and greater financial resources, which could put Nuvve at a competitive disadvantage. Future competitors could also be better positioned to serve certain segments of Nuvve’s current or future target markets, which could create price pressure. In light of these factors, even if Nuvve offerings are more effective and higher quality than those of its competitors, current or potential customers may accept competitive solutions. If Nuvve fails to adapt to changing market conditions or continue to compete successfully with current charging providers or new competitors, its growth will be limited which would adversely affect its business and results of operations.
Nuvve has global operations and faces risks related to pandemics and health crises that could negatively impact its financial condition.
Nuvve’s business, the businesses of its customers and the businesses of its charging equipment suppliers could be materially and adversely affected by the risks, or the public perception of the risks, related to a pandemic or other health crisis, such as the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus COVID-19. A significant outbreak of contagious diseases in the human population could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for Nuvve’s EV supply equipment and related networked services and likely impact its operating results. For example, the impact of COVID-19, including changes in consumer and business behavior, pandemic fears and market downturns, and restrictions on business and individual activities, has created significant volatility in the global economy and led to reduced economic activity. Difficult macroeconomic conditions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as decreases in per capita income and level of disposable income, increased and prolonged unemployment or a decline in consumer confidence, as well as reduced spending by businesses, could each have a material adverse effect on the demand for EVs, charging stations and related networked services, even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided.
Any significant outbreak in the United States, Europe or Japan, where Nuvve and its customers conduct business operations, or in China, where component suppliers of Nuvve’s charging station partners source assembly parts, also could result in the complete or partial closure of its charging station partners’ or their suppliers’ manufacturing facilities, the interruption of distribution systems, temporary or long-term disruption in supply chains from Asia and other international suppliers, disruptions or restrictions on its employees to work or travel, delays in the delivery of its charging stations to customers, reduced demand for EV charging stations, and reduced use of existing EV charging stations, as a result of travel restrictions imposed on the general public and reduced sales of EVs associated with a general economic downturn, and potential claims of exposure to diseases through contact with Nuvve’s charging stations. The spread of COVID-19, for example, has created a disruption in the manufacturing, delivery and overall supply chain of charging station manufacturers.
If the impact of an outbreak continues for an extended period of time, it could materially adversely impact the charging station supply chain, general access to capital and the growth of Nuvve’s revenues. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts Nuvve’s business, prospects and results of operations and the business of its charging station partners will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, and when and to what extent normal economic and operating activities can resume.
Nuvve’s future revenue growth will depend in significant part on its ability to increase sales of its products and services, especially to fleet operators.
Nuvve’s future revenue growth will depend in significant part on its ability to increase sales of its products and services, especially to fleet operators. The electrification of fleets is an emerging market, and fleet operators may not adopt EVs on a widespread basis and on the timelines Nuvve anticipates. In addition to the factors affecting the growth of the EV market generally, transitioning to an EV fleet can be costly and capital intensive, which could result in slower than anticipated adoption. The sales cycle could also be longer for sales to fleet operators, as they are often larger organizations, with more formal procurement processes than smaller commercial site hosts for example. Fleet operators may also require significant additional services and support, and if Nuvve is unable to provide such services and support, it may adversely affect its ability to attract additional fleet operators as customers. Any failure to attract and retain fleet operators as customers in the future would adversely affect Nuvve’s future business and results of operations.
Nuvve participates in the energy markets, and pricing volatility in those markets could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.
Some of the grid services provided by Nuvve through its GIVe platform involve Nuvve bidding in the energy markets. These markets might exhibit significant pricing volatility depending on the type and number of participating resources. The market volatility could impact Nuvve’s ability to generate targeted revenue. New competitors in these markets could also create significant transformation of the market short and long term.
If Nuvve is unable to provide planned services to the energy markets or generate the anticipated revenue from the provision of its services, it would have a material adverse effect on Nuvve’s financial condition and results of operations.
The occurrence of delays in obtaining interconnection approval, or the imposition of interconnection limits or circuit-level caps by regulators, may significantly reduce our ability to provide grid services.
While Nuvve is able to access the grid services market in multiple locations, it is essential that Nuvve expands the number of services it is able to perform and the locations in which it performs them. The ability to interconnect and provide these services to the grid is very often regulated and requires approvals from the local utilities and in some instances, the local public utility commissions or similar regulatory bodies. Working with utilities and local regulators might create delays in the ability to roll out these services, which could delay or prevent Nuvve from recouping its investment in these services.
In addition, interconnection rules establish the circumstances in which Nuvve’s GIVe platform will be connected to the electricity grid. Interconnection limits or circuit-level caps imposed by regulators may curb our growth in key markets. Utilities throughout the country have different rules and regulations regarding interconnection and some utilities cap or limit the amount of energy from various sources that can be interconnected to the grid.
Interconnection regulations are based on determinations from utilities regarding the amount of energy from various sources that can be connected to the grid without causing grid reliability issues or requiring significant grid upgrades. Interconnection limits could slow our future installations, harming our growth rate. For example, the California and Hawaii Public Utilities Commissions recently required the activation of some advanced inverter functionality to head off presumed grid reliability issues, which may require more expensive equipment and more oversight of the physical connection to the electrical grid over time. As a result, these regulations may hamper our ability to sell our offerings in certain markets and increase our costs, adversely affecting our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.
Pursuant to the agreement under which Nuvve acquired certain of its key patents, Nuvve may be required to make significant payments to one of its stockholders, which may reduce its cash flow and profits, and is subject to other risks.
Nuvve is party to an IP acquisition agreement with the University of Delaware, pursuant to which it acquired certain of the key patents underlying its V2G technology. The university beneficially owns approximately 8.8% of our outstanding common stock. Under this agreement, upon achieving certain substantial commercialization milestones, Nuvve may be required to make up to $7,500,000 in royalty payments to the University of Delaware. Nuvve also is required to pay the University of Delaware a minimum of $400,000 per year under a research agreement. These payments will reduce Nuvve’s cash flow and profits. Furthermore, in the event of a material breach of certain limited provisions of the IP acquisition agreement (which do not include the milestone payment provisions) that is not cured within 45 days after notice from the university, Nuvve may be required to assign the patents back to the university. In addition, in the event the University of Delaware notifies Nuvve of a third party’s interest in a region in which the patents are valid, and Nuvve does not within 60 days inform the university that either it intends to address the region pursuant to a commercially reasonable development plan or it intends to enter into a license agreement with an identified third party, Nuvve will be deemed to have granted to the University of Delaware an exclusive sublicensable license to the patents in the unaddressed region. In such event, Nuvve may be unable to realize all of the benefits of the development of the V2G technology. See “Certain Transactions.”
Nuvve operates internationally, and expects to continue to expand its international operations, which will expose Nuvve to additional tax, compliance, market and other risks.
Nuvve operates in the United States, Europe and Japan and maintains contractual relationships with parts and manufacturing suppliers in around the world. Nuvve continues to invest in expanding its presence in Europe directly and through Dreev S.A.S. (“Dreev”), a business venture with EDF. Managing this expansion requires additional resources and controls, and its international operations subject Nuvve to additional risks, including:
|●||conformity with applicable business customs, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;|
|●||lack of availability of government incentives and subsidies;|
|●||challenges in arranging, and availability of, financing for customers;|
|●||potential changes to its established business model;|
|●||difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations in an environment of diverse culture, laws, and customers, and the increased travel, infrastructure, and legal and compliance costs associated with international operations;|
|●||installation and interconnection challenges;|
|●||differing transportation modalities in other markets;|
|●||different levels of demand among commercial and fleet customers;|
|●||compliance with multiple, potentially conflicting and changing governmental laws, regulations, certifications, and permitting processes including environmental, banking, employment, tax, information security, privacy, and data protection laws and regulations such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation, national legislation implementing the same and changing requirements for legally transferring data out of the European Economic Area;|
|●||compliance with U.S. and foreign anti-bribery laws including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the United Kingdom Anti-Bribery Act;|
|●||conforming products and services to various international regulatory and safety requirements as well as charging and other electric infrastructures;|
|●||difficulties in establishing, staffing and managing foreign operations;|
|●||difficulties in collecting payments in foreign currencies and associated foreign currency exposure;|
|●||restrictions on repatriation of earnings;|
|●||compliance with potentially conflicting and changing laws of taxing jurisdictions and compliance with applicable U.S. tax laws as they relate to international operations, the complexity and adverse consequences of such tax laws, and potentially adverse tax consequences due to changes in such tax laws; and|
|●||regional economic and political conditions.|
As a result of these risks, Nuvve’s current expansion efforts and any potential future international expansion efforts may not be successful. Furthermore, as part of the formation of Dreev, the business venture with EDF, Nuvve agreed to assign to Dreev its rights to certain key patents and copyrights in France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy and Germany. Nuvve presently holds a 13% interest in Dreev. The parties have certain put and call option rights under the agreements for the business venture, including a call option for each party upon a change in control of the other party. Nuvve believes the business venture will accelerate its access to these European markets, and that EDF’s participation provides technology validation, brand recognition and financial resources. However, if EDF exercises its rights to acquire Nuvve’s interest in Dreev, it may make it difficult for Nuvve to penetrate these European markets on its own. While Nuvve anticipates that it will maintain or increase its stake in the business venture, there can be no assurance that it will be able to do so.
If Nuvve is unable to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical and vehicle engineering personnel, its ability to compete could be harmed.
Nuvve’s success depends, in part, on its ability to retain its key personnel. Nuvve is highly dependent on Gregory Poilasne, its chief executive officer, and Ted Smith, its Chief Operating Officer, and the other principal members of its management and engineering teams. Although Nuvve has formal employment agreements with select executive officers, these agreements do not prevent Nuvve’s executives from terminating their employment with Nuvve at any time. Nuvve does not maintain “key person” insurance for any of its executives or other employees. The unexpected loss of or failure to retain one or more of its key employees could adversely affect its business. Nuvve’s success also depends, in part, on its continuing ability to identify, hire, attract, train and develop other highly qualified technical, sales and other personnel.
Competition for these employees can be intense, and Nuvve’s ability to hire, attract and retain them depends on its ability to provide competitive compensation. Nuvve may not be able to attract, assimilate, develop or retain qualified personnel in the future, and its failure to do so could adversely affect its business, including the execution of its global business strategy. In addition, Nuvve relies on consultants and advisors, including engineering advisors, to assist it in achieving its research and development, operations, and commercialization objectives. Any loss of the services of such employees or consultants, or failure by them to perform as expected, may have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Nuvve’s management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Nuvve’s executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Its management team may not successfully or effectively manage its transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of its business. Nuvve may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience, and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for Nuvve to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the United States may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that Nuvve will be required to expand its employee base and hire additional employees to support its operations as a public company which will increase its operating costs in future periods.
While Nuvve has not made material acquisitions to date, should Nuvve pursue acquisitions in the future, it would be subject to risks associated with acquisitions.
Nuvve may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to its existing business. The process of identifying and consummating acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into Nuvve’s own business would require attention from management and could result in a diversion of resources from its existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on its operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the expected financial results. Acquisitions could also result in the use of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business.
Risks Related to the EV Market
Technology improvements in the internal combustion engine and other technological developments may adversely affect the demand for electric vehicles and thereby limit the demand for V2G technology and services.
Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, or compressed natural gas or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect demand for EVs and EV charging stations and otherwise and materially adversely affect Nuvve’s business and prospects in ways Nuvve does not currently anticipate. Other fuels or sources of energy may emerge as customers’ preferred alternative to Nuvve’s V2G platform. For example, fuel which is abundant and relatively inexpensive in the United States, such as compressed natural gas or hydrogen, may emerge as preferred alternative to petroleum-based propulsion. In addition, the EV fueling model is different than gas or other fuel models, requiring behavior change and education of consumers and others such as regulatory bodies. Any failure by Nuvve to develop new or enhanced V2G technologies and services to react to changes in existing technologies and standards could materially delay the introduction and adoption V2G technology and services, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of Nuvve’s V2G platform, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors. As technologies change, Nuvve plans to integrate, upgrade or adapt its V2G technology and services, and to introduce new services in order to continue increasing the value Nuvve provide to customers.
Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials, particularly lithium-ion battery cells, could harm the ability of EV manufacturers to produce electric vehicles.
EV manufacturers may experience increases in the cost or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of raw materials. Any such increase or supply interruption could materially negatively impact their businesses as well as Nuvve’s business prospects, financial condition and operating results. EV manufacturers use various raw materials including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber, non-ferrous metals (such as copper), and cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand and could adversely affect their businesses and Nuvve’s business prospects and operating results. As such, Nuvve is exposed to multiple risks relating to price fluctuations for lithium-ion cells. These risks include:
|●||the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the EV industry as demand for such cells increases;|
|●||disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery cell manufacturers; and|
|●||an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells.|
Any disruption in the supply of battery cells could temporarily disrupt production of all EVs. Moreover, battery cell manufacturers may refuse to supply to EV manufacturers if they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. Substantial increases in the prices for raw materials would increase EV manufacturer’s operating costs and could reduce their margins if the increased costs cannot be recouped through increased electric vehicle prices. This would likely result in the production of less electric vehicles by manufacturers.
Changes to fuel economy standards may negatively impact the EV market and thus the demand for Nuvve’s products and services.
As regulatory initiatives have required an increase in the mileage capabilities of cars, consumption of renewable transportation fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, and consumer acceptance of EVs and other alternative vehicles has been increasing. If fuel efficiency of non-electric vehicles continues to rise, whether as the result of regulations or otherwise, and affordability of vehicles using renewable transportation fuels improves, the demand for electric and high energy vehicles could diminish. Regulatory bodies may also adopt rules that substantially favor certain alternatives to petroleum-based propulsion over others, which may not necessarily be EVs. This may impose additional obstacles to the purchase of EVs or the development of a more ubiquitous EV market. Finally, the current litigation between the state of California and the National Highway Transit Safety Administration could impact California’s ability to set fuel economy standards that encourage the adoption of EVs, and are followed by many other states. If any of the above cause or contribute to consumers or businesses to no longer purchase EVs or purchase them at a lower rate, it would materially and adversely affect Nuvve’s business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.
Nuvve’s future growth and success is highly correlated with and thus dependent upon the continuing rapid adoption of EVs for passenger and fleet applications.
Nuvve’s future growth is highly dependent upon the adoption of EVs by businesses, governments, municipalities, school districts and consumers. The market for EVs is still rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, competitive pricing and competitive factors, evolving government regulation and industry standards and changing consumer demands and behaviors, changing levels of concern related to environmental issues and governmental initiatives related to climate change and the environment generally. Although demand for EVs has grown in recent years, there is no guarantee of continuing future demand. If the market for EVs develops more slowly than expected, or if demand for EVs decreases, Nuvve’s business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be harmed. The market for EVs could be affected by numerous factors, such as:
|●||perceptions about EV features, quality, safety, performance and cost;|
|●||perceptions about the limited range over which EVs may be driven on a single battery charge;|
|●||competition, including from other types of alternative fuel vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and high fuel-economy internal combustion engine vehicles;|
|●||volatility in the cost of oil and gasoline;|
|●||concerns regarding the stability of the electrical grid;|
|●||the decline of an EV battery’s ability to hold a charge over time;|
|●||availability of service for EVs;|
|●||consumers’ perception about the convenience and cost of charging EVs;|
|●||increases in fuel efficiency;|
|●||government regulations and economic incentives, including adverse changes in, or expiration of, favorable tax incentives related to EVs, EV charging stations or decarbonization generally;|
|●||relaxation of government mandates or quotas regarding the sale of EVs; and|
|●||concerns about the future viability of EV manufacturers.|
In addition, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry can be cyclical, which may affect growth in acceptance of EVs. It is uncertain how macroeconomic factors will impact demand for EVs, particularly since they can be more expensive than traditional gasoline-powered vehicles, when the automotive industry globally has been experiencing a recent decline in sales. Furthermore, because fleet operators often make large purchases of EVs, this cyclicality and volatility in the automotive industry may be more pronounced with commercial purchasers, and any significant decline in demand from these customers could reduce demand for EV charging and Nuvve’s products and services in particular.
Demand for EVs may also be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in reduced demand for EV charging solutions and therefore adversely affect Nuvve’s business, financial condition and operating results.
The EV market currently benefits from the availability of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives from governments, utilities and others to offset the purchase or operating cost of EVs and EV charging stations. The reduction, modification, or elimination of such benefits could cause reduced demand for EVs and EV charging stations, which would adversely affect Nuvve’s financial results.
The U.S. federal government, foreign governments and some state and local governments provide incentives to end users and purchasers of EVs and EV charging stations in the form of rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives, such as payments for regulatory credits. The EV market relies on these governmental rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives to significantly lower the effective price of EVs and EV charging stations to customers. However, these incentives may expire on a particular date, end when the allocated funding is exhausted, or be reduced or terminated as a matter of regulatory or legislative policy.
Nuvve also derives other revenue from regulatory credits. If government support of these credits declines, Nuvve’s ability to generate this other revenue in the future would be adversely affected. The availability of such credits may decline even with general governmental support of the transition to EV infrastructure. For example, in September 2020, California Governor Gavin Newsom issued Executive Order N-79-20 (the “EO”), announcing a target for all in-state sales of new passenger cars and trucks to be zero-emission by 2035. While the EO calls for the support of EV infrastructure, the form of this support is unclear. If California or other jurisdictions choose to adopt regulatory mandates instead of establishing or continuing green energy credit regimes for EV infrastructure, Nuvve’s revenue from these credits would be adversely impacted.
The EV charging market is characterized by rapid technological change, which requires Nuvve to continue to develop new products and product innovations. Any delays in such development could adversely affect market adoption of Nuvve’s products and it financial results.
Continuing technological changes in battery and other EV technologies could adversely affect adoption of current EV charging technology, standards and/or Nuvve’s products. Nuvve’s future success will depend upon its ability to develop and introduce a variety of new capabilities and innovations to its existing product offerings, as well as introduce a variety of new product offerings, to address the changing needs of the EV charging market. As new products are introduced, gross margins tend to decline in the near term and improves as the product become more mature and with a more efficient manufacturing process.
As EV technologies and standards change, Nuvve may need to upgrade or adapt its V2G technology and services, and introduce new products and services in order to serve vehicles that have the latest technology, in particular battery cell technology, which could involve substantial costs. Even if Nuvve is able to keep pace with changes in technology and develop new products and services, its research and development expenses could increase, its gross margins could be adversely affected in some periods and its prior products could become obsolete more quickly than expected.
Nuvve cannot guarantee that any new products or V2G services will be released in a timely manner, or at all, or achieve market acceptance. Delays in delivering new products or V2G services that meet customer requirements could damage Nuvve’s relationships with customers and lead them to seek alternative providers. Delays in introducing products and innovations or the failure to offer innovative products or services at competitive prices may cause existing and potential customers to purchase its competitors’ products or services.
If Nuvve is unable to devote adequate resources to develop new products and V2G services or cannot otherwise successfully develop products or services that meet customer requirements on a timely basis or that remain competitive with technological alternatives, its products and V2G services could lose market share, its revenue will decline, it may experience higher operating losses and its business and prospects will be adversely affected.
Certain estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate.
This prospectus statement includes estimates of the addressable market for Nuvve’s solutions and the EV market in general. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts, whether obtained from third-party sources or developed internally, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove to be inaccurate. This is especially so at the present time due to the uncertain and rapidly changing projections of the severity, magnitude and duration of the current COVID-19 pandemic. The estimates and forecasts in this prospectus relating to the size and expected growth of the target market, market demand and adoption, capacity to address this demand and pricing may also prove to be inaccurate. In particular, estimates regarding the current and projected market opportunity are difficult to predict. The estimated addressable market may not materialize for many years, if ever, and even if the markets meet the size estimates and growth forecasted in this prospectus, Nuvve’s business could fail to grow at similar rates.
Risks Related to Nuvve’s Technology, Intellectual Property, and Infrastructure
Nuvve’s business may be adversely affected if it is unable to protect its intellectual property rights from unauthorized use by third parties.
Failure to adequately protect Nuvve’s intellectual property rights could result in its competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of its competitive advantage, and a decrease in its revenue which would adversely affect its business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Nuvve’s success depends, at least in part, on its ability to protect its core V2G technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, Nuvve relies and will rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets (including know-how), employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, copyright, trademarks, intellectual property license agreements and other contractual rights to establish and protect Nuvve’s rights in its technology.
The protection of Nuvve’s intellectual property rights will be important to its future business opportunities. However, the measures Nuvve takes to protect its intellectual property from unauthorized use by others may not be effective for various reasons, including the following:
|●||any patent applications Nuvve submits may not result in the issuance of patents;|
|●||the scope of its issued patents may not be broad enough to protect its proprietary rights;|
|●||its issued patents may be challenged and/or invalidated by its competitors;|
|●||the costs associated with enforcing patents, confidentiality and invention agreements or other intellectual property rights may make aggressive enforcement impracticable;|
|●||current and future competitors may circumvent its patents; and|
|●||its in-licensed patents, if any, may be invalidated, or the owners of these patents may breach its license arrangements.|
Patent, trademark, and trade secret laws vary significantly throughout the world. Some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Further, policing the unauthorized use of Nuvve’s intellectual property in foreign jurisdictions may be difficult. Therefore, its intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the United States.
Nuvve’s patent applications may not issue as patents, which may have a material adverse effect on its ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours.
Nuvve cannot be certain that it is the first inventor of the subject matter for which it has filed a particular patent application, or if it is the first party to file such a patent application. If another party has filed a patent application for the same subject matter as Nuvve has, Nuvve may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent application. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine. As a result, Nuvve cannot be certain that any patent applications that it files will issue, or that its issued patents will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. In addition, its competitors may design around its issued patents, which may adversely affect Nuvve’s business, prospects, financial condition or operating results.
Nuvve may be subject to intellectual property infringement or misappropriation claims, which may be time-consuming and expensive or require Nuvve to modify or cease selling its products and services.
From time to time, the holders of intellectual property rights may assert their rights and urge Nuvve to take licenses, and/or may bring suits alleging infringement or misappropriation of such rights. There can be no assurance that Nuvve will be able to mitigate the risk of potential suits or other legal demands by competitors or other third parties. Accordingly, Nuvve may consider entering into licensing agreements with respect to such rights, although
no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur, and such licenses and associated litigation could significantly increase Nuvve’s operating expenses. In addition, if Nuvve is determined to have or believes there is a high likelihood that it has infringed upon or misappropriated a third party’s intellectual property rights, it may be required to cease making, selling or incorporating certain key components or intellectual property into the products and services it offers, to pay substantial damages and/or royalties, to redesign its products and services, and/or to establish and maintain alternative branding. In addition, to the extent that Nuvve’s customers and business partners become the subject of any allegation or claim regarding the infringement or misappropriation of intellectual property rights related to Nuvve’s products and services, Nuvve may be required to indemnify such customers and business partners. If Nuvve were required to take one or more such actions, its business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.
In addition, Nuvve relies on some open-source software and libraries issued under the General Public License (or similar “copyleft” licenses) for development of its products and may continue to rely on similar copyleft licenses. Third parties may assert copyright claims against Nuvve regarding Nuvve’s use of such software or libraries, which could lead to the adverse results listed above. Use of such software or libraries may also force Nuvve to provide third parties, at no cost, the source code to its proprietary software, which may decrease revenue and lessen any competitive advantage Nuvve have due to the secrecy of its source code.
Nuvve’s technology could have undetected defects, errors or bugs in hardware or software which could reduce market adoption, damage Nuvve’s reputation with current or prospective customers, and/or expose Nuvve to product liability and other claims that could materially and adversely affect its business.
Nuvve may be subject to claims that charging stations have malfunctioned and persons were injured or purported to be injured. Any insurance that Nuvve carries may not be sufficient or it may not apply to all situations. Similarly, to the extent that such malfunctions are related to components obtained from third-party vendors, such vendors may not assume responsibility for such malfunctions. In addition, Nuvve’s customers could be subjected to claims as a result of such incidents and may bring legal claims against Nuvve to attempt to hold Nuvve liable. Any of these events could adversely affect Nuvve’s brand, relationships with customers, operating results or financial condition.
Furthermore, Nuvve’s software platform is complex, developed for over two decades by many developers, and includes a number of licensed third-party commercial and open-source software libraries. Nuvve’s software has contained defects and errors and may in the future contain undetected defects or errors. Nuvve is continuing to evolve the features and functionality of its platform through updates and enhancements, and as Nuvve does so, it may introduce additional defects or errors that may not be detected until after deployment to customers. In addition, if Nuvve’s products and services, including any updates or patches, are not implemented or used correctly or as intended, inadequate performance and disruptions in service may result.
Any defects or errors in product or services offerings, or the perception of such defects or errors, or other performance problems could result in any of the following, each of which could adversely affect Nuvve’s business and results of its operations:
|●||expenditure of significant financial and product development resources, including recalls, in efforts to analyze, correct, eliminate or work around errors or defects;|
|●||loss of existing or potential customers or partners;|
|●||interruptions or delays in sales;|
|●||delayed or lost revenue;|
|●||delay or failure to attain market acceptance;|
|●||delay in the development or release of new functionality or improvements;|
|●||negative publicity and reputational harm;|
|●||sales credits or refunds;|
|●||exposure of confidential or proprietary information;|
|●||diversion of development and customer service resources;|
|●||breach of warranty claims;|
|●||legal claims under applicable laws, rules, and regulations; and|
|●||an increase in collection cycles for accounts receivable or the expense and risk of litigation.|
Although Nuvve has contractual protections, such as warranty disclaimers and limitation of liability provisions, in many of its agreements with customers and other business partners, such protections may not be uniformly implemented in all contracts and, where implemented, may not fully or effectively protect from claims by customers, reseller, business partners or other third parties. Any insurance coverage or indemnification obligations of suppliers may not adequately cover all such claims, or cover only a portion of such claims. A successful product liability, warranty, or other similar claim could have an adverse effect on Nuvve’s business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in expenditure of funds in litigation, divert management’s time and other resources and cause reputational harm.
Interruptions, delays in service or inability to increase capacity at third-party data center facilities could impair the use or functionality of Nuvve’s services, harm its business and subject Nuvve to liability.
Nuvve currently serves customers from third-party data center facilities operated by Amazon Web Services (“AWS”) located in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Nuvve’s primary environment is AWS Cloudwatch, although it uses other systems as well. Any outage or failure of such data centers or other interruptions of AWS’ services could negatively affect Nuvve’s product connectivity and performance. Furthermore, Nuvve depends on connectivity from its charging stations to its data centers through wired, local area networks and cellular service providers. Any incident affecting a data center facility’s or network provider’s infrastructure or operations, whether caused by fire, flood, severe storm, earthquake, power loss, telecommunications failures, breach of security protocols, computer viruses and disabling devices, failure of access control mechanisms, natural disasters, war, criminal act, military actions, terrorist attacks and other similar events could negatively affect the use, functionality or availability of Nuvve’s services.
Any damage to, or failure of, Nuvve’s systems, or those of its third-party providers, could interrupt or hinder the use or functionality of its services. Impairment of or interruptions in Nuvve’s services may reduce revenue, subject it to claims and litigation, cause customers to terminate their subscriptions, and adversely affect renewal rates and its ability to attract new customers. Nuvve’s business will also be harmed if customers and potential customers believe its products and services are unreliable.
Nuvve expects to incur research and development costs and devote significant resources to developing new products, which could significantly reduce its profitability and may never result in revenue to Nuvve.
Nuvve’s future growth depends on penetrating new markets, adapting existing products to new applications and customer requirements, and introducing new products that achieve market acceptance. Nuvve plans to incur significant research and development costs in the future as part of its efforts to design, develop, manufacture, and introduce new products and enhance existing products. In addition, Nuvve invests in research and development that may not lead to commercially viable products and services in the short-term, but which it believes is critical to the long-term future of its business. Nuvve’s research and development expenses were $2.9 million and $3.1 million during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and such expenses are likely to grow in the future. Further, Nuvve’s research and development program may not produce successful results, and its new products may not achieve market acceptance, create additional revenue, or become profitable.
Computer malware, viruses, ransomware, hacking, phishing attacks, and similar disruptions could result in security and privacy breaches and interruption in service, which could harm Nuvve’s business.
Computer malware, viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions could lead to interruption and delays in Nuvve’s services and operations and loss, misuse, or theft of data. Computer malware, viruses, ransomware, hacking and phishing attacks against online networks have become more prevalent and may occur on Nuvve’s systems in the future. In addition, outside parties may attempt to penetrate Nuvve’s systems or those of Nuvve’s vendors or fraudulently induce Nuvve’s personnel or the personnel of Nuvve’s vendors to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to Nuvve’s data and/or systems. Any attempts by cyber attackers to disrupt Nuvve’s services or systems, if successful, could harm its business, introduce liability to data subjects, result in the misappropriation of funds, be expensive to remedy and damage Nuvve’s reputation or brand. Insurance may not be sufficient to cover significant expenses and losses related to cyber-attacks. Efforts to prevent cyber attackers from entering computer systems are expensive to implement, and Nuvve may not be able to cause the implementation or enforcement of such preventions with respect to its third-party vendors. Though it is difficult to determine what, if any, harm may directly result from any specific interruption or attack, any failure to maintain performance, reliability, security and availability of systems and technical infrastructure may, in addition to other losses, harm Nuvve’s reputation, brand and ability to attract customers.
Nuvve may in the future experience service disruptions, outages, and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, third-party service providers, human or software errors and capacity constraints. If Nuvve’s services are unavailable when users attempt to access them, they may seek other services, which could reduce demand for its solutions from target customers.
Nuvve has processes and procedures in place designed to enable it to quickly recover from a disaster or catastrophe and continue business operations and has tested this capability under controlled circumstances. However, there are several factors ranging from human error to data corruption that could materially impact the efficacy of such processes and procedures, including by lengthening the time services are partially or fully unavailable to customers and users. It may be difficult or impossible to perform some or all recovery steps and continue normal business operations due to the nature of a particular disaster or catastrophe, especially during peak periods, which could cause additional reputational damages, or loss of revenues, any of which could adversely affect its business and financial results.
In the ordinary course of its business, Nuvve collects and stores sensitive data, including, among other things, personally identifiable information about Nuvve’s employees, intellectual property, and proprietary business information. Nuvve could be subject to risks caused by misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or intentional or accidental release or loss of information maintained in its information systems and networks and those of Nuvve’s vendors, including personal information of Nuvve’s employees and clients, and company and vendor confidential data. If a material breach of Nuvve’s information technology systems or those of Nuvve’s vendors occurs, the market perception of the effectiveness of Nuvve’s security measures could be harmed and Nuvve’s reputation and credibility could be damaged. Nuvve could be required to expend significant amounts of money and other resources to strengthen or replace information systems or networks. In addition, Nuvve could be subject to regulatory actions and/or claims made by individuals and/or groups in private litigations involving privacy issues related to data collection and use practices and other data privacy laws and regulations, including claims for misuse or inappropriate disclosure of data, as well as unfair or deceptive practices. The development and maintenance of these systems, controls and processes is costly and requires ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become increasingly sophisticated. Moreover, despite Nuvve’s efforts, the possibility of these events occurring cannot be eliminated entirely.
Nuvve’s business will depend on customers renewing their services contracts. If customers do not continue to use its service offerings or if they fail to add more stations, its business and operating results will be adversely affected.
Nuvve business depends on customers continuing their services contract with Nuvve for V2G charging services and warranty coverages. Therefore, it is important that customers renew their contracts when the contract term expires and add additional charging stations and services. Customers may decide not to renew their contracts with a similar contract period, at the same prices or terms or with the same or a greater number of users, stations or level of functionality. Customer retention may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including satisfaction with software and features, functionality of the charging stations, prices, the features and pricing of competing products, reductions in spending levels, mergers and acquisitions involving customers and deteriorating general economic conditions.
If customers do not renew their contracts, if they renew on less favorable terms, or if they fail to add products or services, Nuvve’s business and operating results will be adversely affected.
If Nuvve fails to offer high-quality support to station owners and drivers, its business and reputation will suffer.
Once a customer has installed Nuvve’s or a Nuvve partner’s charging stations and subscribed to Nuvve’s services, station owners and drivers will rely on Nuvve and its partners to provide support services to resolve any issues that might arise in the future. Rapid and high-quality customer support is important. The importance of high-quality customer support will increase as Nuvve seeks to expand Nuvve’s business and pursue new customers and geographies. If Nuvve does not quickly resolve issues and provide effective support, its ability to retain customers or sell additional products and services to existing customers could suffer and its brand and reputation could be harmed.
Nuvve relies on a limited number of customers for a large portion of its revenues, and the loss of one or more such customers could have a material adverse impact on its business, financial condition and results of operations.
Nuvve depends on a limited number of customers for a significant portion of its revenue. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, Nuvve had two grant-related customers that each accounted for over 10% of its revenue. In the aggregate, these customers accounted for 41% of Nuvve’s revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020. The loss of one or both of these customers could have a significant impact on Nuvve’s revenues and harm its business, results of operations and cash flows.
Failure to effectively expand Nuvve’s sales and marketing capabilities could harm its ability to increase its customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of its solutions.
Nuvve’s ability to grow its customer base, achieve broader market acceptance, grow revenue, and achieve and sustain profitability will depend, to a significant extent, on its ability to effectively expand its sales and marketing operations and activities. Nuvve anticipates increased sales and marketing expenses will lead to significant increases in Nuvve’s total revenue, and its operating results will suffer if sales and marketing expenditures do not translate into increasing revenue.
Nuvve plans to continue to expand its direct sales force both domestically and internationally but it may not be able to recruit and hire a sufficient number of sales personnel, which may adversely affect its ability to expand its sales capabilities. New hires require significant training and time before they achieve full productivity, particularly in new sales territories. Recent hires and planned hires may not become as productive as quickly as anticipated, and Nuvve may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals. Furthermore, hiring sales personnel in new countries can be costly, complex, and time-consuming, and requires additional set up and upfront costs that may be disproportionate to the initial revenue expected from those countries. There is significant competition for direct sales personnel with the strong sales skills and technical knowledge. Nuvve’s ability to achieve significant revenue growth in the future will depend, in large part, on its success in recruiting, training, incentivizing and retaining a sufficient number of qualified direct sales personnel and on such personnel attaining desired productivity levels within a reasonable amount of time. Nuvve’s business will be harmed if continuing investment in its sales and marketing capabilities does not generate a significant increase in revenue.
Nuvve may be unable to leverage customer data in all geographic locations, and this limitation may impact research and development operations.
Nuvve relies on data collected through charging stations, including usage data and geolocation data. Nuvve uses this data in connection with the research, development and analysis of Nuvve’s technologies. Nuvve’s inability to obtain necessary rights to use this data or freely transfer this data out of, for example, the European Economic Area, could result in delays or otherwise negatively impact Nuvve’s research and development efforts.
Financial, Tax and Accounting-Related Risks
Nuvve may need to raise additional funds and these funds may not be available when needed.
Nuvve may need to raise additional capital in the future to further scale its business and expand to additional markets. Nuvve may raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-related or debt securities, or through obtaining credit from government or financial institutions. Nuvve cannot be certain that additional funds will be available on favorable terms when required, or at all. If Nuvve cannot raise additional funds when needed, its financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. If Nuvve raises funds through the issuance of debt securities or through loan arrangements, the terms of such financings could require significant interest payments, contain covenants that restrict its business, or otherwise include unfavorable terms. In addition, to the extent Nuvve raises funds through the sale of additional equity securities, Nuvve’s stockholders would experience additional dilution.
Nuvve may allocate its cash and cash equivalents in ways that you and other stockholders may not approve.
Nuvve’s management has broad discretion in the application of its cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine Nuvve’s use of its cash and cash equivalents, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Nuvve’s management might not apply its cash and cash equivalents in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. Nuvve expects to use its cash and cash equivalents to execute its growth plan, as well as for working capital and other corporate purposes. The failure by Nuvve’s management to apply these funds effectively could harm its business. Pending their use, Nuvve may invest its cash and cash equivalents in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to Nuvve’s stockholders. If Nuvve does not invest or apply its cash and cash equivalents in ways that enhance stockholder value, Nuvve may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause its stock price to decline.
Nuvve’s quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly.
Nuvve expects that its operating results may be subject to substantial quarterly fluctuations. If Nuvve’s quarterly operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of its common stock could decline substantially. Nuvve believes that quarterly comparisons of its financial results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of its future performance.
Changes to applicable U.S. tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect Nuvve’s business and future profitability.
Nuvve is a U.S. corporation and thus subject to U.S. corporate income tax on income from its worldwide operations. Moreover, a significant amount of Nuvve’s operations and customers are located in the United States, and as a result, Nuvve is subject to various U.S. federal, state and local taxes. New U.S. laws and policy relating to taxes may have an adverse effect on Nuvve’s business, and future profitability. Further, existing U.S. tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to Nuvve.
For example, on December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and certain provisions of the Tax Act may adversely affect Nuvve. In particular, sweeping changes were made to the U.S. taxation of foreign operations. Changes include, but are not limited to, a permanent reduction to the corporate income tax rate, limiting interest deductions, a reduction to the maximum deduction allowed for net operating losses generated in tax years after December 31, 2017, the elimination of carrybacks of net operating losses, adopting elements of a territorial tax system, assessing a repatriation tax or “toll-charge” on undistributed earnings and profits of U.S.-owned foreign corporations, and introducing certain anti-base erosion provisions, including a new minimum tax on global intangible low-taxed income and base erosion and anti-abuse tax. The Tax Act could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, and is subject to interpretations and implementing regulations by the Treasury and IRS, any of which could mitigate or increase certain adverse effects of the legislation.
In addition to the impact of the Tax Act on Nuvve’s federal taxes, the Tax Act may impact Nuvve’s taxation in other jurisdictions, including with respect to state income taxes as state legislatures have not had sufficient time to respond to the Tax Act. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to how the laws will apply in the various state jurisdictions. Additionally, other foreign governing bodies may enact changes to their tax laws in reaction to the Tax Act that could result in changes to Nuvve’s global tax position and materially adversely affect its business and future profitability.
As a result of Nuvve’s expanding operations, including in jurisdictions in which the tax laws may not be favorable, its tax rate may fluctuate, tax obligations may become significantly more complex and subject to greater risk of examination by taxing authorities or Nuvve may be subject to future changes in tax law, the impacts of which could adversely affect Nuvve’s after-tax profitability and financial results.
Because Nuvve does not have a long history of operating at its present or anticipated scale (as Nuvve has significant expansion plans), its effective tax rate may fluctuate in the future. Future effective tax rates could be affected by operating losses in jurisdictions where no tax benefit can be recorded under U.S. GAAP, changes in the composition of earnings in countries with differing tax rates, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws. Factors that could materially affect Nuvve’s future effective tax rates include, but are not limited to: (a) changes in tax laws or the regulatory environment, (b) changes in accounting and tax standards or practices, (c) changes in the composition of operating income by tax jurisdiction and (d) Nuvve’s operating results before taxes.
Additionally, Nuvve’s operations will be subject to significant income, withholding and other U.S. federal income tax obligations in the United States and may become subject to taxes in numerous additional state, local and non-U.S. jurisdictions with respect to its income, operations and subsidiaries related to those jurisdictions. Nuvve’s after-tax profitability and financial results could be subject to volatility or be affected by numerous factors, including (a) the availability of tax deductions, credits, exemptions, refunds (including refunds of value added taxes) and other benefits to reduce its tax liabilities, (b) changes in the valuation of its deferred tax assets and liabilities, (c) expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances, (d) tax treatment of stock-based compensation, (e) changes in the relative amount of its earnings subject to tax in the various jurisdictions in which Nuvve operate or have subsidiaries, (f) the potential expansion of its business into or otherwise becoming subject to tax in additional jurisdictions, (g) changes to its existing intercompany structure (and any costs related thereto) and business operations, (h) the extent of its intercompany transactions and the extent to which taxing authorities in the relevant jurisdictions respect those intercompany transactions and (i) Nuvve’s ability to structure its operations in an efficient and competitive manner. Due to the complexity of multinational tax obligations and filings, Nuvve may have a heightened risk related to audits or examinations by U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. taxing authorities. Outcomes from these audits or examinations could have an adverse effect on Nuvve’s after-tax profitability and financial condition. Additionally, the IRS and several foreign tax authorities have increasingly focused attention on intercompany transfer pricing with respect to sales of products and services and the use of intangibles. Tax authorities could successfully challenge Nuvve’s position with respect to intercompany charges, cross-jurisdictional transfer pricing or other matters and assess additional taxes. If Nuvve does not prevail in any such challenge, its profitability may be affected.
Nuvve’s after-tax profitability and financial results may also be adversely impacted by changes in the relevant tax laws and tax rates, treaties, regulations, administrative practices and principles, judicial decisions and interpretations thereof, in each case, possibly with retroactive effect. For example, the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS recently entered into force among the jurisdictions that have ratified it, although the United States has not yet entered into this convention. These recent changes could negatively impact Nuvve’s tax position, especially as Nuvve expands its relationships and operations internationally.
Nuvve’s ability to utilize net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards is conditioned upon Nuvve attaining profitability and generating taxable income. Nuvve has incurred significant net losses since inception and it is possible that Nuvve may continue to incur significant losses. Additionally, Nuvve’s ability to utilize net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be limited.
As of December 31, 2020, Nuvve had $17.2 million of U.S. federal and $11.9 million of California net operating loss carryforwards available to reduce future taxable income, of which $14.1 million of the U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards can be carried forward indefinitely. The U.S. federal and California state net operating loss carryforwards begin to expire in 2034. The Tax Act included a reduction to the maximum deduction allowed for net operating losses generated in tax years after December 31, 2017 and the elimination of carrybacks of net operating losses. Under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), which modified the Tax Act, U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020 is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is possible that Nuvve will not generate taxable income in time to utilize the net operating loss carryforwards prior to their expiration. In addition, net operating loss carryforwards and certain tax credits may be subject to significant limitations under Section 382 and Section 383 of the Code, respectively, and similar provisions of state law. Under those sections of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income or tax may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” will occur if there is a cumulative change in ownership by “5% shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. If Nuvve has experienced an ownership change at any time since its incorporation, Nuvve may already be subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its existing net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset taxable income or tax liability. In addition, the Business Combination, and future changes in Nuvve’s stock ownership, which may be outside of Nuvve’s control, may trigger an ownership change. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply to limit Nuvve’s use of accumulated state tax attributes. As a result, even if Nuvve earns net taxable income in the future, its ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset such taxable income or tax liability may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future income tax liability to Nuvve.
Nuvve has not conducted a study to assess whether an “ownership change” has occurred since inception. If Nuvve has experienced an “ownership change,” as defined by Section 382 of the Code, at any time since inception, utilization of the net operating loss carryforwards or research and development tax credit carryforwards would be subject to an annual limitation under Section 382 of the Code, which is determined by first multiplying the value of Nuvve’s stock at the time of the ownership change by the applicable long-term tax-exempt rate, and then could be subject to additional adjustments, as required. Any limitation may result in expiration of a portion of the net operating loss carryforwards or research and development tax credit carryforwards before utilization. In addition, the Business Combination may constitute an ownership change under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. Nuvve’s net operating losses or credits may also be impaired under state law. Accordingly, Nuvve may not be able to utilize a material portion of the net operating losses or credits.
Furthermore, Nuvve’s ability to utilize its net operating losses or credits following the Business Combination is conditioned upon Nuvve attaining profitability and generating U.S. federal and state taxable income. Nuvve has incurred significant net losses since inception and will continue to incur significant losses and, therefore, Nuvve does not know whether or when the combined carryforwards, which may be or may become subject to limitation by Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, will be utilized.
Nuvve’s reported financial results may be negatively impacted by changes in U.S. GAAP.
U.S. GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on reported financial results.
Nuvve will incur significant increased expenses and administrative burdens as a public company, which could have an adverse effect on Nuvve’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Nuvve faces increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses as a public company that Nuvve did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including the requirements of Section 404, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) and the securities exchanges, impose additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. Compliance with public company requirements will increase costs and make certain activities more time-consuming. A number of those requirements require Nuvve to carry out activities in which Nuvve has not engaged previously. For example, Nuvve is creating new board committees and has adopted new internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. In addition, expenses associated with SEC reporting requirements will be incurred. Furthermore, if any issues in complying with those requirements are identified (for example, management has identified material weaknesses, and may in the future identify other material weaknesses or significant deficiencies, in Nuvve’s internal control over financial reporting), Nuvve could incur additional costs rectifying those issues, and the existence of those issues could adversely affect its reputation or investor perceptions of it. In addition, Nuvve has obtained director and officer liability insurance. Risks associated with Nuvve’s status as a public company may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on the Board or as executive officers. The additional reporting and other obligations imposed by these rules and regulations increase legal and financial compliance costs and the costs of related legal, accounting and administrative activities. These increased costs will require Nuvve to divert a significant amount of money that could otherwise be used to expand the business and achieve strategic objectives. Advocacy efforts by stockholders and third parties may also prompt additional changes in governance and reporting requirements, which could further increase costs.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and if Nuvve takes advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies, it could make its securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare its performance to the performance of other public companies.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. As such, we will be eligible for and intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, for as long as we continues to be an emerging growth company, including (a) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (b) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements and (c) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of June 30 of that fiscal year, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year (as indexed for inflation), (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in the prior three-year period or (iv) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of equity securities of Newborn (our predecessor) in its initial public offering consummated on February 19, 2020. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as it is an emerging growth company. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period and, therefore, we may not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. Investors may find our securities less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions, which may result in a less active trading market for its common stock and warrants and the price of such securities may be more volatile.
Our failure to timely and effectively implement controls and procedures required by Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on the our business.
As a public company, we will be required to provide management’s attestation on internal controls. The standards required for a public company under Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are significantly more stringent than those required of Nuvve as a private company. Management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that are now applicable after the Business Combination. If we are not able to implement the additional requirements of Section 404(a) in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, the combined company may not be able to assess whether its internal controls over financial reporting are effective, which may subject it to adverse regulatory consequences and could harm investor confidence and the market price of its securities.
Nuvve has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. If Nuvve is unable to remediate these material weaknesses, or if Nuvve identifies additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fails to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, this may result in material misstatements of its consolidated financial statements or cause Nuvve to fail to meet its periodic reporting obligations.
In connection with the preparation and audit of Nuvve’s consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for the years then ended, material weaknesses were identified in its internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of Nuvve’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weaknesses include:
|●||Segregation of duties related to roles and responsibilities in the accounting department is lacking in various circumstances, including with respect to account reconciliation and receipt/disbursement duties, independent review of journal entries, and access to the accounting system.|
|●||Nuvve’s financial close and reporting processes lack formal documentation of financial closing policies and procedures, do not result in timely production of accurate financial information, and do not result in a consistent documentation of the considerations and conclusions related to unusual or complex accounting matters.|
These material weaknesses could result in a misstatement of account balances or disclosures that would result in a material misstatement to the annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected.
Nuvve is in the process of developing a plan to remediate these material weaknesses.
In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of Nuvve’s internal control over financial reporting, Nuvve has expended, and anticipates that Nuvve will continue to expend, significant resources, including accounting-related costs and significant management oversight. Nuvve’s independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting until after it is no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. At such time, Nuvve’s independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which its internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed, or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect the business and operating results after the Business Combination and could cause a decline in the price of Nuvve’s common stock.
The unaudited pro forma financial information included herein is not indicative of what Nuvve’s actual financial position or results of operations would have been.
The unaudited pro forma financial information included herein is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what Nuvve’s actual financial position or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination been completed on the dates indicated.
Risks Related to Legal Matters and Regulations
Electric utility statutes and regulations and changes to such statutes or regulations may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to Nuvve’s ability to offer grid services.
Federal, state and local government statutes and regulations concerning electricity heavily influence the market for Nuvve’s grid service offerings and are constantly evolving. These statutes, regulations, and administrative rulings relate to electricity pricing, net metering, consumer protection, incentives, taxation, competition with utilities, and the interaction of Nuvve’s GIVe platform with the electrical grid. Governments, often acting through state utility or public service commissions, change and adopt different rates on a regular basis and these changes can have a negative impact on our ability to generate revenue or customer savings.
In addition, utilities, their trade associations, and fossil fuel interests in the country, each of which has significantly greater economic and political resources than Nuvve does, may challenge policies that are beneficial to Nuvve. Any adverse changes in energy policies and regulations could have a negative impact on our business and prospects.
Privacy concerns and laws, or other domestic or foreign regulations, may adversely affect Nuvve’s business.
National and local governments and agencies in the countries in which Nuvve operates and in which customers operate have adopted, are considering adopting, or may adopt laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, storage, processing, and disclosure of information regarding consumers and other individuals, which could impact Nuvve’s ability to offer services in certain jurisdictions. Laws and regulations relating to the collection, use, disclosure, security, and other processing of individuals’ information can vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and are particularly stringent in Europe. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security are significant. In addition, some companies, particularly larger enterprises, often will not contract with vendors that do not meet these rigorous standards. Accordingly, the failure, or perceived inability, to comply with these laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations may limit the use and adoption of Nuvve’s solutions, reduce overall demand, lead to regulatory investigations, litigation, and significant fines, penalties, or liabilities for actual or alleged noncompliance, or slow the pace at which Nuvve closes sales transactions, any of which could harm its business. Moreover, if Nuvve or any of its employees or contractors fails or is believed to fail to adhere to appropriate practices regarding customers’ data, it may damage its reputation and brand.
Additionally, existing laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations may be interpreted in new and differing manners in the future, and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions. Future laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations, and changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations could result in increased regulation, increased costs of compliance and penalties for non-compliance, and limitations on data collection, use, disclosure, and transfer for Nuvve and its customers. The European Union and United States agreed in 2016 to a framework for data transferred from the European Union to the United States, but this framework has been challenged and recently declared invalid by the Court of Justice of the European Union, thereby creating additional legal risk for Nuvve. Additionally, the European Union adopted the GDPR in 2016, and it became effective in May 2018. The GDPR establishes requirements applicable to the handling of personal data and imposes penalties for non-compliance of up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of worldwide revenue. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the GDPR may limit the use and adoption of Nuvve’s products and services and could have an adverse impact on its business. Further, California adopted the California Consumer Privacy Protection Act (“CCPA”) and the California State Attorney General has begun enforcement actions. Nuvve may be exposed to ongoing legal risks related to CCPA and any amendments that may be made in connection with the California Privacy Rights Act approved by voters in the November 2020 election.
The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security that are applicable to the businesses of customers may adversely affect ability and willingness to process, handle, store, use, and transmit certain types of information, such as demographic and other personal information. In addition, the other bases on which Nuvve and its customers rely for the transfer of personal data across national borders, such as the Standard Contractual Clauses promulgated by the EU Commission Decision 2010/87/EU, commonly referred to as the Model Clauses, continue to be subjected to regulatory and judicial scrutiny. If Nuvve or its customers are unable to transfer data between and among countries and regions in which it operates, it could decrease demand for its products and services or require it to modify or restrict some of its products or services.
In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups, the technology industry, and other industries have established or may establish various new, additional, or different self-regulatory standards that may place additional burdens on technology companies. Customers may expect that Nuvve will meet voluntary certifications or adhere to other standards established by them or third parties. If Nuvve is unable to maintain these certifications or meet these standards, it could reduce demand for its solutions and adversely affect its business.
Failure to comply with anticorruption and anti-money laundering laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and similar laws associated with activities outside of the United States, could subject Nuvve to penalties and other adverse consequences.
Nuvve is subject to the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the UK Bribery Act, and possibly other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which it conducts activities. Nuvve faces significant risks if it fails to comply with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws that prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from promising, authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to foreign government officials, political parties, and private-sector recipients for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, directing business to any person, or securing any advantage. Any violation of the FCPA, other applicable anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, or severe criminal or civil sanctions, which could have a materially adverse effect on Nuvve’s reputation, business, operating results, and prospects. In addition, responding to any enforcement action may result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs, and other professional fees.
Failure to comply with laws relating to employment could subject Nuvve to penalties and other adverse consequences.
Nuvve is subject to various employment-related laws in the jurisdictions in which its employees are based. Nuvve face risks if it fails to comply with applicable United States federal or state wage laws, or wage laws applicable to its employees outside of the United States. In addition, Nuvve implemented a reduction in force in 2020, and the attendant layoffs could create an additional risk of claims being made on behalf of affected employees. Any violation of applicable wage laws or other labor- or employment-related laws could result in complaints by current or former employees, adverse media coverage, investigations, and damages or penalties which could have a materially adverse effect on Nuvve’s reputation, business, operating results, and prospects. In addition, responding to any such proceeding may result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs, and other professional fees.
Existing and future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating costs or construction costs and restrictions. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations may result in substantial fines or other limitations that may adversely impact Nuvve’s financial results or results of operation.
Nuvve and its operations, as well as those of its contractors, suppliers, and customers, are subject to certain environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including laws related to the use, handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes as well as electronic wastes and hardware, whether hazardous or not. These laws may require Nuvve or others in Nuvve’s value chain to obtain permits and comply with procedures that impose various restrictions and obligations that may have material effects on Nuvve’s operations. If key permits and approvals cannot be obtained on acceptable terms, or if other operational requirements cannot be met in a manner satisfactory for Nuvve’s operations or on a timeline that meets Nuvve’s commercial obligations, it may adversely impact Nuvve’s business.
Environmental and health and safety laws and regulations can be complex and may be subject to change, such as through new requirements enacted at the supranational, national, sub-national, and/or local level or new or modified regulations that may be implemented under existing law. The nature and extent of any changes in these laws, rules, regulations, and permits may be unpredictable and may have material effects on Nuvve’s business. Future legislation and regulations or changes in existing legislation and regulations, or interpretations thereof, including those relating to hardware manufacturing, electronic waste, or batteries, could cause additional expenditures, restrictions and delays in connection with Nuvve’s operations as well as other future projects, the extent of which cannot be predicted.
Although Nuvve maintains workers’ compensation insurance to cover the costs and expenses Nuvve may incur due to injuries to its employees resulting from the use of or exposure to hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. Nuvve does not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against it in connection with its storage, use or disposal of biological or hazardous materials.
Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Securities
Concentration of ownership among Nuvve’s existing executive officers, directors and their affiliates may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.
Our directors and executive officers and their affiliates as a group beneficially own approximately 15.9% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders will be able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, any amendment of our certificate of incorporation and any approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these stockholders.
Sales of a substantial number of our securities in the public market could cause the price of its securities to fall.
We have approximately 18,761,124 outstanding shares of common stock and outstanding warrants to purchase 4,365,000 shares of common stock. These warrants became exercisable upon the closing of the Business Combination at an exercise price of $11.50 per share. Additionally, we have outstanding stock options to purchase approximately 1,303,610 shares of common stock, which have an average remaining life of approximately 7 years and a weighted average exercise price of approximately $3.27 per share. In addition, 3,300,000 million shares of common stock are available for future issuance under the Incentive Plan. To the extent such warrants or options are exercised, or we grant additional stock options or other stock-based awards under the 2020 Plan, additional shares of common stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of our common stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market.
Furthermore, although the shares of common stock issued in the Business Combination are subject to lock-up restrictions, as described elsewhere in this prospectus, upon the lapse of these lock-up restrictions, a substantial number of additional shares of common stock will become eligible for resale in the public market.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of common stock or warrants in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur could depress the market price of the common stock and/or warrants and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the prevailing market price of its common stock and warrants.
The grant and future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of our securities.
Pursuant to the registration rights agreement entered into in connection with the Business Combination and which is described elsewhere in this prospectus, certain stockholders can demand that we register their registrable securities under certain circumstances and will also have piggyback registration rights for these securities in connection with certain registrations of securities that we undertake. We intend to file and maintain an effective registration statement under the Securities Act covering such securities.
The registration of these securities will permit the public resale of such securities. The registration and availability of such a significant number of securities for trading in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation grant our board the power to issue additional shares of common and preferred stock and to designate series of preferred stock, all without stockholder approval.
We are authorized to issue 101,000,000 shares of capital stock, of which 1,000,000 shares will be authorized as preferred stock. Our board of directors (the “Board”), without any action by its stockholders, may designate and issue shares of preferred stock in such series as it deems appropriate and establish the rights, preferences and privileges of such shares, including dividends, liquidation and voting rights, provided it is consistent with Delaware law.
The rights of holders of our preferred stock that may be issued could be superior to the rights of holders of our common stock. The designation and issuance of shares of capital stock having preferential rights could adversely affect other rights appurtenant to shares of the common stock. Further, any issuances of additional stock (common or preferred) will dilute the percentage of ownership interest of then current holders of our capital stock and may dilute its book value per share.
Nuvve has never paid cash dividends on its capital stock, and we do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future.
Nuvve has never paid cash dividends on any of its capital stock and we currently intend to retain any future earnings to fund the growth of its business. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that the board may deem relevant. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
The trading price of our securities is likely to be volatile, and you may not be able to sell our securities at or above the price you paid.
We expect the trading price of our common stock and warrants to be volatile and such securities could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
|●||actual or anticipated fluctuations in operating results;|
|●||failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;|
|●||issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts or changed recommendations for our stock or the transportation industry in general;|
|●||announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;|
|●||operating and share price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;|
|●||our focus on long-term goals over short-term results;|
|●||the timing and magnitude of our investments in the growth of it business;|
|●||actual or anticipated changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;|
|●||additions or departures of key management or other personnel;|
|●||disputes or other developments related to our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, including litigation;|
|●||our ability to market new and enhanced products and technologies on a timely basis;|
|●||sales of substantial amounts of the common stock by executive officers, directors or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur;|
|●||changes in our capital structure, including future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt;|
|●||the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the response of governments and business to the pandemic; and|
|●||general economic, political and market conditions.|
In addition, the stock market in general, and Nasdaq in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our securities, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of its management’s attention and resources.
If securities or industry analysts issue an adverse opinion regarding our common stock or do not publish research or reports about us, the price and trading volume of its securities could decline.
The trading market for our common stock and warrants depends in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about the company and its business. We do not control these analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. Securities analysts may elect not to provide research coverage of our company and such lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of its common stock and warrants. The price of our common stock and warrants could also decline if one or more equity research analysts downgrade their recommendations with respect to our common stock and warrants, change their price targets, issue other unfavorable commentary or cease publishing reports about us. If one or more equity research analysts cease coverage of Nuvve, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause the price of its securities to decline.
Anti-takeover provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and in applicable law, could impair a takeover attempt.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws will afford certain rights and powers to our Board that could contribute to the delay or prevention of an acquisition that it deems undesirable, including:
|●||a classified Board with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our Board;|
|●||the ability of our Board to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquiror;|
|●||the right of our Board to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our Board or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which may prevent stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our Board;|
|●||the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our Board, our chairman of the board of directors or our Chief Executive Officer, which could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors; and|
|●||the requirement for the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 ⅔% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the voting stock, voting together as a single class, to amend certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or to amend our amended and restated bylaws, which may inhibit the ability of an acquiror to effect such amendments to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt.|
We are also subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law and other provisions of Delaware law that limit the ability of stockholders in certain situations to effect certain business combinations. Any of the foregoing provisions and terms that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for the common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides, subject to limited exceptions, that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for certain stockholder litigation matters, which could limit stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or stockholders.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will require, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name, actions against directors, officers and employees for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware or, if that court lacks subject matter jurisdiction, another federal or state court situated in the State of Delaware. These provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act, the Securities Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the forum provisions in the amended and restated certificate of incorporation. In addition, the amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws will provide that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, claims made under the Securities Act must be brought in federal district court.
In March 2020, the Delaware Supreme Court issued a decision in Salzburg et al. v. Sciabacucchi, which found that an exclusive forum provision providing for claims under the Securities Act to be brought in federal court is facially valid under Delaware law. It is unclear whether this decision will be appealed, or what the final outcome of this case will be. We intend to enforce this provision, but the company does not know whether courts in other jurisdictions will agree with this decision or enforce it. Further, it is possible that, in connection with claims arising under federal securities laws, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable. For example, Section 22 of the Securities Act provides that federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction over lawsuits brought the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. If that were the case, because stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, it would allow stockholders to bring claims for breach of these provisions in any appropriate forum.
This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in the amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm its business, operating results and financial condition.
All of the common stock and warrants offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock or warrants by the Selling Securityholders.
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $15.6 million from the exercise of the warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the warrants for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the warrants. There is no assurance that the holders of the warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such warrants. To the extent that the warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Warrants will decrease.
MARKET INFORMATION FOR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Our common stock and warrants are currently listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “NVVE” and “NVVEW,” respectively. Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, Newborn’s units, ordinary shares, warrants, and rights were listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “NBACU,” “NBAC,” “NBACW,” and “NBACR,” respectively. Upon the closing of the Reincorporation Merger, each of Newborn’s outstanding units was automatically separated into its constituent securities and Newborn’s outstanding securities (including the Newborn ordinary shares and Newborn warrants purchased by the PIPE Investors) were converted into a like number of equivalent securities of Nuvve Holding Corp., except that each of Newborn’s rights was converted automatically into one-tenth of one share of Nuvve Holding Corp.’s common stock in accordance with its terms. As of immediately following the completion of the Business Combination, there were approximately 60 holders of record of our common stock and approximately 10 holders of record of our warrants.
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of the common stock in the foreseeable future.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
As of December 31, 2020, PubCo had no equity compensation plans or outstanding equity awards. The following table is presented as of December 31, 2020 in accordance with SEC requirements:
|Plan Category||Number of Securities|
to be Issued Upon
Warrants and Rights
Exercise Price of
|Number of Securities|
for Future Issuance
|Equity compensation plans approved by security holders||—||—||—|
|Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders||—||—||—|
In connection with the Business Combination, we adopted the 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2020 Plan”), which was approved by PubCo’s board of directors on February 10, 2021, by the shareholders of Newborn on March 17, 2021 (Hong Kong time) and by Newborn, as the sole stockholder of PubCo, on March 19, 2021.
SELECTED FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF NUVVE
The data below as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 has been derived from Nuvve’s audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this report. Nuvve’s historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other period in the future.
The information is only a summary and should be read in conjunction with Nuvve’s audited combined and consolidated financial statements and related notes, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of Nuvve” contained elsewhere in this report.
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Products and services||$||1,943,151||$||1,035,244||$||313,029|
|Cost of products and services revenue||521,068||544,229||85,000|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||5,487,037||5,064,737||5,560,018|
|Research and development expense||2,888,975||3,131,482||3,624,458|
|Total operating expenses||8,897,080||8,740,448||9,269,476|
|Other income (expense)|
|Equity in net loss of investment||-||(671,731||)||-|
|Other income with related party||-||3,891,313||-|
|Change in fair value of conversion option on convertible notes||(37,497||)||-||-|
|Total other income (expense)||(196,751||)||3,139,585||32,514|
|Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted||$||(0.20||)||$||(0.12||)||$||(0.32||)|
|Weighted average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted||24,741,512||24,542,314||24,542,314|
|Consolidated Balance Sheet Data|
|Balance Sheet Data|
|Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)||$||(880,710||)||$||1,669,977||$||4,336,714|
SELECTED FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF NEWBORN
The following table shows selected historical financial information of Newborn for the periods and as of the dates indicated.
|For the Period|
April 12, 2019
|(in thousands, except share and per-share data)|
|Income Statement Data:|
|General and administrative expenses||$||1,441||$||5|
|Interest income on cash and marketable securities held in the trust account||$||396||$||—|
|Less: Income attributable to ordinary shares subject to redemption||(352||)||$||—|
|Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders||$||(1,397||)||$||(5||)|
|Basic and diluted net loss per share||$||(0.63||)||$||—|
|Weighted average shares outstanding, basic and diluted||2,226,460||1,437,500|
|Balance Sheet Data:|
|Ordinary shares subject to possible redemption||$||51,493||$||—|
|Total stockholders’ equity||$||5,000||$||21|
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are based on Newborn’s audited historical financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 and Nuvve’s audited historical consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, adjusted to give effect to the Business Combination and the PIPE Investment.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 combines the audited historical balance sheet of Newborn as of December 31, 2020 with the audited historical consolidated balance sheet of Nuvve as of December 31, 2020, giving effect to the Business Combination and the PIPE Investment, as if they had been consummated as of that date.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 combines the audited historical statement of operations of Newborn for the year ended December 31, 2020 with the audited historical consolidated statement of operations of Nuvve for the year ended December 31, 2020, giving effect to the Business Combination and the PIPE Investment, as if they had occurred as of January 1, 2020.
Notwithstanding the legal form of the Business Combination, the Business Combination will be accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with US GAAP. Under this method of accounting, Newborn will be treated as the acquired company and Nuvve will be treated as the acquiror for financial statement reporting purposes.
The historical financial information has been adjusted to give pro forma effect to adjustments that are directly attributable to the Business Combination and the PIPE Investment, are factually supportable and, with respect to the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations, are expected to have a continuing impact on the results of the combined company. The adjustments presented on the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements have been identified and presented to provide relevant information necessary for an accurate understanding of the combined company upon consummation of the Business Combination and the PIPE Investment.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is for illustrative purposes only. The financial results may have been different had the companies always been combined. You should not rely on the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information as being indicative of the historical results that would have been achieved had the companies always been combined or the future results that the combined company will experience. Newborn and Nuvve have not had any historical relationship prior to the Business Combination. Accordingly, no pro forma adjustments were required to eliminate activities between the companies.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared to reflect the final redemption of 1,832 of Newborn ordinary shares for $18,630.
The pro forma outstanding shares of PubCo common stock immediately after the Business Combination and the redemption of the Newborn ordinary shares is as follows:
|Newborn ordinary share stockholders||2,345,924||12.5||%|
|Newborn escrow shares||5,112,244||27.2||%|
|Newborn rights shares||602,250||3.2||%|
|Convertible debenture shares||544,178||2.9||%|
|Former Nuvve stockholders||8,522,996||45.4||%|
The historical financial information of Newborn was derived from the audited financial statements of Newborn as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, which are included in Newborn’s annual report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 19, 2021. The historical financial information of Nuvve was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Nuvve as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, which are included elsewhere in this report.
The information is only a summary and should be read together with Newborn’s and Nuvve’s audited financial statements and related notes, the section of this report and the section of Newborn’s annual report entitled “—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and other financial information included elsewhere in this report.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is for illustrative purposes only. The financial results may have been different had the companies always been combined. You should not rely on the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information as being indicative of the historical results that would have been achieved had the companies always been combined or the future results that the combined company will experience.
See “Risk Factors” for additional discussion of risk factors associated with the pro forma financial statements.
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Balance Sheet
As of December 31, 2020
|December 31, 2020||December 31, 2020|
|Newborn Acquisition Corp. (Historical)||Nuvve Corporation (Historical)||Pro Forma Adjustments||Pro Forma Combined|
|Security deposit, current||-||20,427||-||20,427|
|Total current assets||147,423||4,765,682||62,422,218||67,335,323|
|Cash and marketable securities held in trust account||57,895,769||-||(57,895,769||)||A||-|
|Property and equipment, net||-||95,231||-||95,231|
|Intangible assets, net||-||1,620,514||-||1,620,514|
|Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity|
|Total current liabilities||113,083||8,036,145||(3,801,954||)||4,347,274|
|Deferred underwriting compensation||1,437,500||-||(1,437,500||)||B||-|
|Commitments and contingencies|
|Ordinary shares subject to possible redemption; 5,114,076 (at redemption value of $10.0688 per share)||51,492,608||-||(51,492,608||)||E||-|
|Stockholders’ equity (deficit):|
|Convertible preferred stock||-||1,679||-|
|Nuvve Common Stock||-||2,616||-|
|Accumulated other comprehensive income||-||(77,841||)||-||(77,841||)|
|Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)||5,000,001||(880,710||)||61,258,511||65,377,802|
|Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit)||$||58,043,192||$||7,155,435||$||4,526,449||$||69,725,076|
Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statement of Operations
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020
|December 31, 2020||December 31, 2020|
|Newborn Acquisition Corp. (Historical)||Nuvve Corporation (Historical)||Pro Forma Adjustments||Pro Forma Combined|
|Products and services revenue||$||-||$||1,943,151||$||-||$||1,943,151|
|Cost of products and services revenue||-||521,068||-||521,068|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||1,441,262||5,487,037||-||6,928,299|
|Research and development expense||-||2,888,975||-||2,888,975|
|Total operating expenses||1,441,262||8,897,080||-||10,338,342|
|Other income (expense)|
|Interest income on cash and marketable securities held in trust||395,769||-||(395,769||)||CC||-|
|Change in fair value of conversion option on convertible notes||-||(37,497||)||37,497||BB||-|
|Total other income||395,769||(196,751||)||(44,658||)||154,360|
|Less: income attributable to ordinary shares subject to redemption||(351,999||)||-||351,999||DD|
|Adjusted net loss||$||(1,397,492||)||$||(4,884,134||)||$||307,341||$||(5,974,285||)|
|Weighted average shares outstanding of ordinary shares subject to possible redemption||4,441,540||-||(1,832||)||FF||4,439,708|
|Basic and diluted earnings per share, ordinary shares subject to possible redemption||0.08||-||-||$||0.08|
|Weighted average shares outstanding of Ordinary Shares||2,226,460||-||16,415,200||EE||18,641,660|
|Basic and diluted adjusted net loss per share - Ordinary Shares||$||(0.63||)||-||-||$||(0.32||)|
|Weighted average shares outstanding of Nuvve Common Stock||-||24,741,512||-||-|
|Basic and diluted net loss per share - Nuvve||-||$||(0.20||)||-||-|
NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
|1.||Basis of Presentation|
The Business Combination will be accounted for as a reverse recapitalization under U.S. GAAP. Under this method of accounting, Newborn will be treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. This determination is primarily based on Nuvve’s stockholders comprising 48.3% of the voting power of PubCo and having the ability to nominate five of the seven members of the PubCo’s board of directors, Nuvve’s operations prior to the acquisition comprising the only ongoing operations of PubCo, and Nuvve’s senior management comprising all of the senior management of PubCo.
Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the financial statements of PubCo will represent a continuation of the financial statements of Nuvve with the Business Combination treated as the equivalent of Nuvve issuing stock for the net assets of Newborn, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of Newborn will be stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination will be presented as those of Nuvve in future reports of PubCo.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 gives pro forma effect to the Business Combination and the other events contemplated by the Merger Agreement as if they had been consummated on December 31, 2020. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 gives pro forma effect to the Business Combination and the other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement as if they had been consummated on January 1, 2020.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information was derived from and should be read in conjunction with the following historical financial statements and the accompanying notes, which are included elsewhere in this report:
|●||the historical audited financial statements of Newborn as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020;|
|●||the historical audited consolidated financial statements of Nuvve as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020; and|
|●||other information relating to Newborn and Nuvve contained in this report, including the Merger Agreement and the description of certain terms thereof set forth in the Proxy Statement/Prospectus in the section entitled “The Business Combination.”|
Management has made significant estimates and assumptions in its determination of the pro forma adjustments based on information available as of the date of this report. As the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared based on these preliminary estimates, the final amounts recorded may differ materially from the information presented as additional information becomes available. Management considers this basis of presentation to be reasonable under the circumstances.
One-time direct and incremental transaction costs anticipated to be incurred prior to, or concurrent with, the closing of the Business Combination are reflected in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as a direct reduction to PubCo’s additional paid-in capital and are assumed to be cash settled.
|2.||Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information|
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2020
The adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 are as follows:
|(A)||Reflects the liquidation and reclassification of $57,895,769 of cash and marketable securities held in the Trust Account to cash and cash equivalents that becomes available for general use by PubCo following the Closing.|
|(B)||Reflects the payment of $1,437,500 of deferred underwriters’ fees incurred during Newborn’s IPO due upon the Closing.|
|(C)||Represents the total direct and incremental transaction costs of $4,352,742, prior to, or concurrent with, the Closing, exclusive of the $1,437,500 of deferred underwriting fees related to the Newborn initial public offering as described in adjustment note 2(B). The estimated transaction costs include investment banking fees of 2%, which will be settled in stock and management currently estimates that this will result in 208,532 shares of common stock valued at $2,085,321 based on $10.00 per share.|
|(D)||Reflects the proceeds of $14,250,000 from the issuance and sale of 1,425,000 shares of Newborn ordinary shares at $10.00 per share pursuant to the Subscription Agreements entered into with new PIPE Investors in connection with the PIPE Financing. The PIPE Investors also received warrants to purchase 1,353,750 Newborn ordinary shares at an exercise price of $11.50 in connection with the PIPE Financing.|
|(E)||Reflects the reclassification of Newborn ordinary shares subject to possible redemption to permanent equity immediately prior to the Closing.|
|(F)||Reflects the conversion of Nuvve convertible preferred stock into Nuvve common stock pursuant to the conversion rate effective immediately prior to the Effective Time and the related liquidation preference of the Nuvve convertible preferred stock.|
|(G)||Reflects the elimination of Newborn’s historical retained earnings.|
|(H)||Reflects the conversion of Nuvve convertible debenture into Newborn common stock pursuant to the conversion rate effective prior to the Closing and the amortization of the debt issuance costs.|
|(I)||Reflects the repurchase of 600,000 shares of PubCo common stock from an existing stockholder immediately after the Closing at a price of $10 per share or $6,000,000. The existing stockholder also has an option to sell up to an additional $2 million of shares of PubCo common stock back to PubCo within a year after the Closing at a price per share equal to the then-current market price, which is not reflected in the pro forma balance sheet.|
|(J)||Represents the recapitalization of common shares between Nuvve Common Stock, PubCo Common Stock and additional paid-in capital.|
|(K)||Represents the redemption of 1,832 of Newborn ordinary shares redeemed for approximately $18,630 allocated to common stock and additional paid-in capital, using a par value of $0.0001 per share at a redemption price of approximately $10.17 per share.|
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statements of Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2020
The adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 are as follows:
|(AA)||Reflects the elimination of interest expense related to Nuvve’s convertible notes that were all converted into Nuvve common stock as of December 31, 2020 and the elimination of interest expense related to Nuvve’s convertible debenture as a result of the convertible debenture being converted into Newborn common stock prior to the Closing as described in adjustment note 2 (H).|
|(BB)||Reflects the elimination of the loss in fair value of the conversion option on the Nuvve convertible notes as a result of the Nuvve convertible notes being converted into Nuvve common stock as of December 31, 2020.|
|(CC)||Represents the elimination of investment income related to the investments held in the Newborn Trust Account.|
|(DD)||Reflects the elimination of the income attributable to Newborn ordinary shares subject to redemption which is deemed to be converted into shares of PubCo common stock as of January 1, 2020.|
|(EE)||Represents the increase in the weighted average shares in connection with the issuance for the following transactions, which are weighted as if they had been issued for the entire period:|
|Newborn escrow shares||5,112,244|
|Newborn rights shares||602,250|
|Convertible debenture shares||544,178|
|Former Nuvve stockholders||8,522,996|
|(FF)||Represents the decrease in the weighted average shares in connection with the redemption of 1,832 of Newborn ordinary shares as described in adjustment note 2(K).|
|3.||Net Loss per Share|
Represents the net loss per share calculated using the historical weighted average shares outstanding and the issuance of additional shares in connection with the Business Combination and other related events, assuming such additional shares were outstanding since January 1, 2020. As the Business Combination is being reflected as if it had occurred as of January 1, 2020, the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding for basic and diluted net loss per share assumes the shares issued in connection with the Business Combination have been outstanding for the entire periods presented.
Following the Closing, the eligible Nuvve Equity holders will have the right to receive up to 4,000,000 earnout shares, issuable upon the occurrence of the earnout triggering event during the earnout period. See the description of Business Combination set forth in the Proxy Statement/Prospectus in the section entitled “The Business Combination.” Because the earnout shares are contingently issuable based upon PubCo reaching specified thresholds that have not been achieved, the earnout shares have been excluded from basic and diluted pro forma net loss per share.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined net loss per share is shown below:
|Pro forma net loss||$||(5,974,285||)|
|Weighted average shares outstanding - basic and diluted||18,641,660|
|Net loss per share - basic and diluted||$||(0.32||)|
|Weighted average shares outstanding - basic and diluted|
|Newborn ordinary share stockholders||2,226,460|
|Newborn escrow shares||5,112,244|
|Newborn rights shares||602,250|
|Convertible debenture shares||544,178|
|Former Nuvve stockholders||8,522,996|
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of Nuvve’s operations should be read in combination with Nuvve’s consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements appearing elsewhere in this report. This discussion and analysis should also be read together with Nuvve’s pro forma financial information as of December 31, 2020, for the annual periods ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements reflecting our management’s current expectations that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. See the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results and the timing of events may differ materially from those described in or implied by these forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, particularly those set forth under “Risk Factors.”
Nuvve is a green energy technology company that provides, directly and through business ventures with its partners, a globally-available, commercial V2G technology platform that enables EV batteries to store and resell unused energy back to the local electric grid and provide other grid services. Its proprietary V2G technology — Nuvve’s Grid Integrated Vehicle (GIVe) platform — has the potential to refuel the next generation of EV fleets through cutting-edge, bi-directional charging solutions.
Nuvve’s proprietary V2G technology enables it to link multiple EV batteries into a virtual power plant to provide bi-directional services to the electrical grid. Nuvve’s GIVe software platform was created to harness capacity from “loads” at the edge of the distribution grid (i.e., coalitions of aggregated EVs and small stationary batteries) in a qualified, controlled and secure manner to provide many of the grid services offered by conventional generation sources (i.e., coal and natural gas plants). Nuvve’s current addressable energy and capacity markets include grid services such as frequency regulation, demand charge management, demand response, energy optimization, distribution grid services and energy arbitrage.
Nuvve’s customers and partners include owner/operators of light duty fleets, heavy duty fleets (including school buses), automotive manufacturers, charge point operators, and strategic partners (via joint ventures, other business ventures and special purpose financial vehicles). Nuvve also operates a small number of company-owned charging stations serving as demonstration projects funded by government grants. Nuvve expects growth in company-owned stations and the related government grant funding to continue, but for such projects to constitute a declining percentage of its future business as its commercial operations expand.
Nuvve offers its customers networked charging stations, infrastructure, software, professional services, support, monitoring and parts and labor warranties required to run electric vehicle fleets, as well as low and in some cases free energy costs. Nuvve expects to generate revenue primarily from the provision of services to the grid via its GIVe software platform and sales of V2G-enabled charging stations. In the case of light duty fleet and heavy duty fleet customers, Nuvve also may receive a mobility fee, which is a recurring fixed payment made by fleet customers per fleet vehicle. In addition, Nuvve may generate non-recurring engineering services revenue derived from the integration of its technology with automotive OEMs and charge point operators. In the case of recurring grid services revenue generated via automotive OEM and charge point operator customer integrations, Nuvve may share the recurring grid services revenue with the customer.
As reflected in Nuvve’s unaudited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020, Nuvve had a cash balance, a working capital deficit and an accumulated deficit of $2.3 million, $3.3 million and $20.5 million, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, Nuvve incurred a net loss of $4.9 million and $3.0 million, respectively. Nuvve has been able to raise funds primarily through issuances of equity and convertible notes to support its business operations, although there can be no assurance it will be successful in raising necessary funds in the future, on acceptable terms or at all.
On March 19, 2021, Nuvve consummated the Business Combination contemplated by the Merger Agreement. The Business Combination was effected in two steps, as follows: (i) Newborn merged with and into PubCo, with PubCo surviving the merger as the new public company, and (ii) Merger Sub merged with and into Nuvve, with Nuvve surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of PubCo. Also on March 19, 2021, PubCo consummated the PIPE, generating net proceeds of $14,250,000.
Upon consummation of the Business Combination, Nuvve-designated directors were appointed to five of the seven seats of the combined company’s board of directors; Nuvve’s Chief Executive Officer was appointed as Chairman of the combined company’s board of directors; Nuvve’s senior management became the senior management of the combined company; and the current stockholders of Nuvve became the owners of approximately 48.3% of the outstanding shares of common stock of the combined company. Accordingly, the Business Combination is being accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, whereby Nuvve is the acquirer for accounting and financial reporting purposes and Newborn is the legal acquirer. A reverse recapitalization does not result in a new basis of accounting, and the financial statements of the combined entity represent the continuation of the consolidated financial statements of Nuvve in many respects. The shares of Newborn remaining after redemptions, and the unrestricted net cash and cash equivalents on the date the Business Combination is consummated, are being accounted for as a capital infusion to Nuvve.
The most significant change in Nuvve’s future reported financial position and results as a result of the completion of the Business Combination and the PIPE is an estimated net increase in cash of approximately $62,018,410. Total transaction costs of $3,702,421 were treated as a reduction of the cash proceeds with capital raising costs being deducted from Nuvve’s additional paid-in capital. In addition, the net cash proceeds were reduced by PubCo’s payment of $6,000,000 to EDF Renewables in connection with the repurchase from them of 600,000 shares of PubCo common stock pursuant to the Purchase and Option Agreement, payment of $487,500 to NeoGenesis Holding Co. Ltd., the sponsor of Newborn, in repayment of loans made by the sponsor to Newborn, and deposit of $495,000 into escrow for the potential repayment Nuvve’s PPP loan. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Financial Information.”
As a consequence of the Business Combination, Nuvve became an SEC-registered, Nasdaq-listed company, which will require Nuvve to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and customary practices. Nuvve expects to incur additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees and additional internal and external accounting, legal and administrative expenses.
Additionally, Nuvve expects its capital and operating expenditures will increase significantly in connection with ongoing activities as Nuvve invests additional working capital for heavy-duty DC-V2G charging stations and level 2 AC-V2G charging stations, additional investments in equipment to meet increased project needs, and additional operating expenses to hire project managers, technicians, sales, partnership and customer service personnel, data scientists, trading teams, software engineers and administrative staff.
Nuvve’s historical operations and statements of assets and liabilities may not be comparable to the operations and statements of assets and liabilities of the combined company as a result of the Business Combination.
In October 2018, Nuvve entered into a Cooperation Framework Agreement (“CFA”) with Électricité de France (“EDF”) to establish a venture to jointly develop and commercialize Nuvve’s V2G electric vehicle battery technology in France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Italy. In connection with the CFA, on February 11, 2019, Nuvve and its strategic partner EDF Pulse Croissance Holding (“EDF Pulse”) (an affiliate of EDF) together formed Dreev S.A.S. (“Dreev”), a company based in France to commercialize Nuvve’s GIVe V2G software platform in France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Italy. In connection with the formation of Dreev, Nuvve licensed and transferred its V2G technology and know-how for a 49% stake in Dreev and EDF Pulse provided capital for its 51% stake in Dreev and access to its subsidiary ecosystem. In October 2019, Nuvve added Germany to the territory covered by the Dreev. On October 16, 2019, Nuvve sold approximately 36% of its stake in Dreev to EDF Pulse, reducing Nuvve’s ownership of Dreev to approximately 13%. Until October 16, 2019, Nuvve accounted for Dreev under the equity method. At that point, Nuvve ceased applying the equity method of accounting, as it determined that it no longer had the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of Dreev as a result of EDF Pulse’s increased ownership stake. The equity method accounting for Dreev resulted in 49% of Dreev’s losses included in other expense until October 16, 2019, when Nuvve discontinued including a portion of Dreev’s losses. EDF Pulse is a related party, as EDF Renewables, an affiliate of EDF Pulse, is a stockholder of Nuvve through ownership of Nuvve’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.
On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” and on March 11, 2020, declared it to be a pandemic. Actions taken around the world to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19 include restrictions on travel, quarantines in certain areas and forced closures for certain types of public places and businesses. The coronavirus and actions taken to mitigate its spread have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse impact on the economies and financial markets of many countries, including the geographical area in which Nuvve operates. On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was enacted to, among other things, provide emergency assistance for individuals, families and businesses affected by the coronavirus pandemic.
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to evolve, Nuvve believes the extent of the impact to its business, operating results, cash flows, liquidity and financial condition will be primarily driven by the severity and duration of the coronavirus pandemic, the pandemic’s impact on the U.S. and global economies and the timing, scope and effectiveness of federal, state and local governmental responses to the pandemic. Those primary drivers are beyond Nuvve’s knowledge and control, and as a result, at this time Nuvve is unable to predict the cumulative impact, both in terms of severity and duration, that the coronavirus pandemic will have on its business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition, but it could be material if the current circumstances continue to exist for a prolonged period of time. In addition to any direct impact on Nuvve’s business, it is reasonably possible that the estimates made by management in preparing Nuvve’s financial statements have been, or will be, materially and adversely impacted in the near term as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, and if so, Nuvve may be subject to future impairment losses related to long-lived assets as well as changes to recorded reserves and valuations. Although Nuvve has made its best estimates based upon current information, there can be no assurance that such estimates will prove correct due to the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak or otherwise.
Key Factors Affecting Nuvve’s Business
Nuvve believes its performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for it but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the “Form 10 Information—Risk Factors” section of this report.
Growth in EV Adoption
Nuvve’s revenue growth is tied to the overall acceptance of commercial fleet and passenger EVs sold, which it believes will help drive the demand for intelligent vehicle-grid-integration solutions. The market for EVs is still rapidly evolving and although demand for EVs has grown in recent years, there is no guarantee of such future demand. Factors impacting the adoption of EVs include but are not limited to: perceptions about EV features, quality, safety, performance and cost; perceptions about the limited range over which EVs may be driven on a single battery charge; volatility in the cost of oil and gasoline; availability of services for EVs; consumers’ perception about the convenience and cost of charging EVs; and increases in fuel efficiency. In addition, macroeconomic factors could impact demand for EVs, particularly since they can be more expensive than traditional gasoline-powered vehicles when the automotive industry globally has been experiencing a recent decline in sales. If the market for EVs does not develop as expected or if there is any slow-down or delay in overall EV adoption rates, this would impact Nuvve’s ability to increase its revenue or grow its business.
Nuvve’s future growth is highly dependent upon the fleet applications associated with its technology. Because fleet operators often make large purchases of EVs, this cyclicality and volatility may be more pronounced, and any significant decline from these customers reduces Nuvve’s potential for future growth.
Government Mandates, Incentives and Programs
The U.S. federal government, foreign governments and some state and local governments provide incentives to end users and purchasers of EVs and EV charging stations in the form of rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives, such as payments for regulatory credits. The EV market relies on these governmental rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives to significantly lower the effective price of EVs and EV charging stations to customers. However, these incentives may expire on a particular date, end when the allocated funding is exhausted, or be reduced or terminated as a matter of regulatory or legislative policy.
Nuvve also derives other revenue from fees received for transferring regulatory credits earned for participating in low carbon fuel programs in approved states. Generally, only the owner of EV charging stations can either claim or assign such regulatory credits. If a material percentage of Nuvve’s customers were to claim these regulatory credits or choose to not assign the regulatory credits to Nuvve, Nuvve’s revenue from this source could decline significantly, which could have an adverse effect on its revenues and overall gross margin. While Nuvve has derived an immaterial percentage of its other revenue from these regulatory credits, Nuvve expects revenue from this source as a percentage of revenue may increase over time. Further, the availability of such credits depends on continued governmental support for these programs. If these programs are modified, reduced or eliminated, Nuvve’s ability to generate this revenue in the future would be adversely impacted.
Nuvve offers proprietary V2G technology and services and intends to expand its market share over time in its product categories, leveraging the network effect of its V2G technology, services and GIVe software platform. Existing competitors may expand their product offerings and sales strategies, and new competitors may enter the market. Furthermore, Nuvve’s competition includes other types of electric vehicle charging technologies, such as uni-directional “smart-charging” and lower cost (unmanaged) charging solutions. See “Form 10 Information—Business of Nuvve.” If Nuvve’s market share does not grow due to increased competition, its revenue and ability to generate profits in the future may be impacted.
Nuvve operates in North America, selected countries in Europe (directly and through its business venture with EDF), and Japan. Revenue from North America and Europe are expected to contribute significantly to Nuvve’s total revenue in the near-to-intermediate term, while revenue from Japan is expected to increase over the longer run due to the early stage nature of its market for V2G technology and services. Nuvve plans to use a portion of the proceeds from this Business Combination to increase its sales and marketing activities, as well as to potentially pursue strategic acquisitions in North America and Europe. Nuvve is also positioned to grow its North American and European business through future partnerships with charge point operators, OEMs and leasing companies. However, Nuvve may experience competition with other providers of EV charging station networks for installations. Many of these competitors have limited funding, which could lead to poor customer experiences and have a negative impact on overall EV adoption. Nuvve’s growth in North America and Europe requires differentiating itself as compared to the several existing competitors. If Nuvve is unable to penetrate the market in North America and Europe, its future revenue growth and profits will be impacted.
Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2019
The following table sets forth information regarding our consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
|Year Ended December 31,||Year-over-Year Change|
|Products and services||$||1,943,151||$||1,035,244||$||907,907||88||%|
|Cost of product and service revenue||521,068||544,229||(23,161||)||-4||%|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||5,487,037||5,064,737||422,300||8||%|
|Research and development expense||2,888,975||3,131,482||(242,507||)||-8||%|
|Total operating expenses||8,897,080||8,740,448||156,632||2||%|
|Other income (expense)|
|Equity in net loss of investment||—||(671,731||)||671,731||-100||%|
|Other income with related party||—||3,891,313||(3,891,313||)||100||%|
|Change in fair value of conversion option on convertible notes||(37,497||)||—||(37,497||)||100||%|
|Total other income (expense)||(196,751||)||3,139,585||(3,336,336||)||-106||%|
Total revenue was $4.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $2.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $1.6 million, or 63%. The increase is attributed to a $0.7 million increase in services revenue, a $0.2 million increase in products revenue, and a $0.7 million increase in grants revenue.
The increase in services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was primarily driven by an increase in V2G grid services derived from the Nuvve GIVe software platform. Nuvve’s services revenue is typically recurring revenue from an installed base of EVs, charging stations and stationary batteries.
The increase in products revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was primarily driven by an increase in revenues related to sales of charging stations.
The increase in grants revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was primarily driven by an increase in grant-funded projects primarily in the United Kingdom wherein Nuvve demonstrated the V2G capabilities of its GIVe software platform and shared data and valuable learnings with key stakeholders, including utilities, independent system operators, regulators and strategic partners. We believe such grant-funded project and utility pilot revenues may not continue to be a significant portion of our revenues in the future.
Cost of Product and Service Revenue
Cost of product and service revenues primarily consisted of the cost of charging station goods and related services sold. Cost of product and service revenues decreased by $0.02 million, or 4%, primarily due to the sales of charging stations to Dreev in 2019 offset by sales of charging stations in the United States.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of selling, marketing, advertising, payroll, administrative, finance and professional expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses were $5.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to $5.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $0.4 million, or 8%. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase in payroll expenses and professional fees, offset by a decrease in subcontractor expenses.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses decreased by $0.2 million, or 8%, from $3.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $2.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily attributable to a decrease in salaries from reduced headcount and decreased license fee expenses.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists primarily of interest income (expense), equity in net loss of investment, other income with a related party, change in fair value of conversion option on convertible notes, and other income (expense). Other income (expense) decreased by $3.3 million, from $3.1 million of other income for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $0.2 million in other expense for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily attributable to an increase in the year ended December 31, 2019 in other income with a related party of $3.9 million resulting from the investment in Dreev, offset by a $0.7 million equity loss on investment in Dreev realized during the same period.
Net loss increased by $1.9 million, or 62%, from $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $4.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in net loss before income tax expense was primarily due to an increase in expenses of $0.2 million and a decrease in other income of $3.3 million for the aforementioned reasons, offset by an increase in revenue of $1.6 million.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
We are an early stage business enterprise and we have funded our business operations primarily with the issuance of equity and convertible notes, and borrowings along with cash from operations. Nuvve has incurred net losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception which it anticipates will continue for the foreseeable future. For the year ended December 31, 2020, Nuvve has raised net proceeds of $5.4 million from the issuances of equity and convertible notes, the issuance of a convertible debenture, and borrowings from the Payroll Protection Program (“PPP”) and Small Business Administration (“SBA”) loan programs. At December 31, 2020, Nuvve had a cash balance of $2.3 million.
Convertible Promissory Notes
Beginning in July 2018 and continuing through October 2020, Nuvve issued a total of $1.6 million of convertible promissory notes (the “Notes”). Nuvve received cash proceeds from the issuance of the Notes of $1.1 million and issued $0.5 million in Notes in exchange for services. The Notes accrued interest at 5 percent per annum with varying maturity dates from January 31, 2019 to December 1, 2021. The Notes provided for conversion upon the closing of an equity financing, an IPO or a liquidation event. In the event of a next equity financing, the remaining principal and accrued interest of each note would automatically convert into shares of a new series of preferred stock of Nuvve with terms similar to that of the equity securities issued in connection with the next equity financing, at a price equal to the lower of the price paid by the investors participating in the next equity financing or at a price based on an assumed valuation of Nuvve. In the event of a conversion at maturity, or of a liquidation event or IPO, the shares would be converted to Nuvve’s equity securities at a price based on an assumed valuation of Nuvve.
In November 2020, Nuvve entered into agreements with each of the Note holders, whereby the principal and interest earned on each of the outstanding Notes would be converted into shares of Nuvve common stock at a price that was the lower of 80% of the price paid by the investors in the Bridge Loan or at a price based on an assumed valuation of Nuvve. On November 17, 2020, all Notes were converted into a total of 1,539,225 shares of Nuvve common stock (which were converted into approximately 326,936 shares of PubCo common stock in connection with the Business Combination).
PPP and SBA Loans
In April 2020, Nuvve applied for, and in May 2020 received, a loan in the amount of $0.5 million as a part of the CARES Act. The loan is also known as a PPP loan. If Nuvve meets certain criteria, the loan will be forgiven. If it is not forgiven, the loan will have a term of two years at an interest rate of 1% with principal and interest deferred for six months. Although we intend to make our best efforts to meet the criteria and achieve forgiveness of the loan, there is no assurance that it will be successful.
In March 2020, Nuvve applied for, and in May 2020 received, an Economic Injury Disaster Loan Emergency Advance (EIDL) loan from the Small Business Administration in the amount of $0.2 million. On November 16, 2020, Nuvve repaid the principal and interest balance due on this loan.
Nuvve has two contracts, E-FLEX and Project Local Energy Oxfordshire, with a United Kingdom government agency, Innovate UK (IUK). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, IUK offered, and in March 2020, Nuvve accepted a grant of disaster relief funds of 0.1 million British pounds (equivalent to approximately US$0.1 million) to only be used in performance under these contracts.
|Year Ended |
|Net cash (used in) provided by:|
|Effect of exchange rate on cash and restricted cash||(189,258||)||48,362|
|Net increase (decrease) in cash and restricted cash||$||1,949,192||$||(1,822,198||)|
For the years ended December 30, 2020 and 2019, cash used in operating activities was $3.1 million and $4.2 million, respectively. Nuvve’s cash use in the year ended December 31, 2020 was primarily attributable to its net loss of $4.9 million, partially offset by $0.7 million of net cash provided by changes in the levels of operating assets and liabilities. Nuvve’s cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 was primarily attributable to its net loss of $3.0 million and gain on sale of equity investment of $3.2 million, partially offset by $1.2 million of net cash provided by changes in the levels of operating assets and liabilities.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, cash used in investing activities was $0.02 million, which was used to purchase fixed assets. Net cash provided in investing activities was $2.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, which was provided by the sale of Nuvve’s interest in its investment in Dreev.
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $5.2 million, of which $3.7 million was provided in connection with the issuance of a convertible debenture, $1.0 million was provided in connection with the issuance of various forms of convertible notes, and $0.5 million from PPP loans. Cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $0.05 million, all of which was provided in connection with the issuance of convertible notes.
Through December 31, 2020, Nuvve incurred an accumulated deficit since inception of $20.5 million. As of December 31, 2020, Nuvve had a cash balance and working capital deficit of $2.3 million and $3.3 million, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2020, Nuvve incurred a loss before income tax expense of $4.9 million.
Immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination on the Closing Date, March 19, 2021, Newborn consummated the sale of $14,250,000 of Newborn’s ordinary shares and warrants in the PIPE pursuant to the Subscription Agreements. In addition, immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination, the principal and interest earned on the Bridge Loan (see note 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information) was automatically converted into 2,562,005 shares of common stock of Nuvve based on a conversion price of $1.56. At the effective time of the Business Combination, subject to the terms and conditions of the Merger Agreement, each share of Nuvve common stock (including the shares of the Nuvve Series A preferred stock that were converted into shares of Nuvve common stock immediately prior to the closing) was canceled and converted into the right to receive the number of shares of the PubCo common stock equal to the Closing Exchange Ratio. As part of the Business Combination, Newborn was merged with and into PubCo, the separate corporate existence of Newborn ceased and PubCo continued as the surviving corporation. Upon the closing of the merger with PubCo, each of Newborn’s outstanding units was automatically separated into its constituent securities and Newborn’s outstanding securities (including the Newborn ordinary shares and Newborn warrants purchased by the PIPE Investors) were converted into a like number of equivalent securities of PubCo, except that each of Newborn’s rights was converted automatically into one-tenth of one share of PubCo common stock in accordance with its terms. In connection with the closing, PubCo changed its name to Nuvve Holding Corp.
Additionally, certain of the former Nuvve stockholders may be entitled to receive up to 4,000,000 earn-out shares of PubCo common stock if, for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021, the Nuvve’s revenue, as determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP, equals or exceeds $30,000,000.
In Newborn’s initial public offering, Newborn issued 5,750,000 units at $10.00 per unit. Concurrently with the initial public offering, Newborn sold to its sponsor 272,500 units at $10.00 per unit in a private placement. Newborn received net proceeds of approximately $57,989,380 from the public and private units. Upon closing of the initial public offering and the private placement, $57,500,000 was placed in a trust account with a trust company acting as trustee. On the Closing Date, the balance in the Trust Account, net of $18,630 of redemptions by Newborn shareholders, was $58,453,331.
Pursuant to a Purchase and Option Agreement between PubCo and an existing stockholder of Nuvve, 600,000 shares of PubCo common stock were repurchased immediately after the closing for $6,000,000 out of the proceeds available from the Trust Account.
After the closing of the above transactions, payment of transaction costs of $3,702,421, repayment of loans made by Newborn’s sponsor to Newborn of $487,500, and deposit into escrow of $495,000 to cover the balance of the PPP Loan (see note 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information), the New Public Company received total net proceeds in cash of $62,018,410 result of the above transactions. Management believes the net proceeds will be sufficient to fund its operations for the next year.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Nuvve is not a party to any off-balance sheet arrangements.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes Nuvve’s contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2020:
|Due by Period|
|Less than |
|1 – 3 years||Total|
|Operating lease obligations||$||139,843||$||—||$||139,843|
|Additional contribution to Dreev||250,448||250,447||500,895|
Nuvve has a licensing agreement with the University of Delaware whereby all right, title, and interest in licensed intellectual property was assigned to Nuvve. Under the terms of the agreement, Nuvve will pay up to an aggregate $7.5 million in royalties to the university upon achievement of certain substantial commercialization milestones (see note 12 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information).
Nuvve is committed to possible future additional contributions to Dreev in the amount of approximately $0.5 million (see note 4 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information).
Nuvve enters into purchase commitments that include purchase orders and agreements in the normal course of business with contract manufacturers, parts manufacturers, vendors and outsourced services.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Management’s discussion and analysis of Nuvve’s financial condition and results of operations is based on its consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires Nuvve to make estimates and assumptions for the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and related disclosures. Nuvve’s estimates are based on its historical experience and on various other factors that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions and any such differences may be material.
While Nuvve’s significant accounting policies are described in more detail in Note 1 to its consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report, it believes the following accounting policies and estimates to be most critical to the preparation of its consolidated financial statements.
On January 1, 2019, Nuvve adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), as amended (“ASC 606”), using the modified retrospective method applied to contracts which were not completed as of that date. During fiscal year 2019 and 2020, Nuvve recognizes revenue using the five-step model under ASC 606 in determining revenue recognition that requires Nuvve to exercise judgment when considering the terms of contracts, which includes: (a) identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer; (b) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (c) determination of the transaction price; (d) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (e) recognition of revenue when, or as, it satisfies a performance obligation.
Nuvve may enter into contracts with customers that include promises to transfer multiple products and services, such as charging systems, software subscriptions, extended maintenance, and professional services. For arrangements with multiple products and services, Nuvve evaluates whether the individual products and services qualify as distinct performance obligations. In Nuvve’s assessment of whether products and services are a distinct performance obligation, it determines whether the customer can benefit from the product or service on its own or with other readily available resources and whether the service is separately identifiable from other products or services in the contract. This evaluation requires Nuvve to assess the nature of each of its networked charging systems, subscriptions, and other offerings and how they are provided in the context of the contract, including whether they are significantly integrated which may require judgment based on the facts and circumstances of the contract.
The transaction price for each contract is determined based on the amount Nuvve expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for transferring the promised products or services to the customer. Collectability of revenue is reasonably assured based on historical evidence of collectability of fees Nuvve charges its customers. The transaction price in the contract is allocated to each distinct performance obligation in an amount that represents the relative amount of consideration expected to be received in exchange for satisfying each performance obligation. Revenue is recognized when performance obligations are satisfied. Revenue is recorded based on the transaction price excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties such as sales taxes, which are collected on behalf of and remitted to governmental authorities, or driver fees, collected on behalf of customers who offer public charging for a fee.
When agreements involve multiple distinct performance obligations, Nuvve accounts for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct. Nuvve applies significant judgment in identifying and accounting for each performance obligation, as a result of evaluating terms and conditions in contracts. The transaction price is allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price (“SSP”) basis. Nuvve determines SSP based on observable standalone selling price when it is available, as well as other factors, including the price charged to its customers, its discounting practices and its overall pricing objectives, while maximizing observable inputs. In situations where pricing is highly variable, or a product is never sold on a stand-alone basis, Nuvve estimates the SSP using the residual approach.
Nuvve has entered into various agreements for research and development services. The terms of these arrangements typically include terms whereby Nuvve receives milestone payments in accordance with the scope of services outlined in the respective agreement or is reimbursed for allowable costs. At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, Nuvve evaluates whether a significant reversal of cumulative revenue associated with achieving the milestones is probable and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Nuvve applies considerable judgment in evaluating factors such as the scientific, regulatory, commercial, and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the particular milestone in making this assessment. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, Nuvve reevaluates the probability of achievement of all milestones subject to constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.
Revenue for other service contracts is recognized over time using an input method where progress on the performance obligation is measured based on the proportion of actual costs incurred to date relative to the total costs expected to be required to satisfy the performance obligation.
During 2017, Nuvve was awarded grant funding from the California Energy Commission, which contract continued through 2020. Nuvve has concluded as of January 1, 2019 that this government grant is not within the scope of ASC 606, as government entity does not meet the definition of a “customer” as defined by ASC 606, as there is not considered to be a transfer of control of goods or services to the government entity funding the grant. Revenues from this grant are based upon internal costs incurred that are specifically covered by the grant. Revenue is recognized as Nuvve incurs expenses that are related to the grant. Nuvve believes this policy is consistent with the overarching premise in ASC 606, to ensure that it recognizes revenues to reflect the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services, even though there is no “exchange” as defined in the ASC. Nuvve believes the recognition of revenue as costs are incurred and amounts become earned/realizable is analogous to the concept of transfer of control of a service over time under ASC 606.
For sales of finished products (charging stations) to customers, Nuvve satisfies its performance obligation and records revenues when transfer of control has passed to the customer, which Nuvve has determined as the date at which the product ships. The transaction price is determined based upon the invoiced sales price. Payment terms generally require remittance from customer within 30 days of the sale date.
Areas of Judgment and Estimates
Determining whether multiple promises in a contract constitute distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately or as a single performance obligation requires significant judgment. In reaching its conclusion, Nuvve assesses the nature of each individual service or product offering and how the services and products are provided in the context of the contract, including whether the services are significantly integrated which may require judgment based on the facts and circumstances of the contract. Determining the relative SSP for contracts that contain multiple performance obligations requires significant judgment. Nuvve determines SSP using observable pricing when available, which takes into consideration market conditions and customer specific factors. When observable pricing is not available, Nuvve first allocates to the performance obligations with established SSPs and then applies the residual approach to allocate the remaining transaction price.
Nuvve grants stock options to employees and non-employees. Determining the grant date fair value of options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires management to make certain assumptions and judgments. These estimates involve inherent uncertainties, and, if different assumptions had been used, stock-based compensation expense could have been materially different from the amounts recorded. Stock-based compensation is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. Nuvve recognizes forfeitures as they occur.
The determination of the grant date fair value of stock option awards issued is affected by a number of variables, including the fair value of Nuvve’s underlying common stock, its expected common stock price volatility over the term of the option award, the expected term of the award, risk-free interest rates, and the expected dividend yield of Nuvve Common Stock.
The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions used in estimating the fair value of stock options granted during each of the periods presented:
|Year Ended |
|Expected life of options (in years)||6.1||—|
|Risk-free interest rate||0.37||%||—|
There were no stock options granted during the year ended December 31, 2019.
Expected Life. The expected term represents the expected life of options is the average of the contractual term of the options and the vesting period.
Dividend Yield. The expected dividend yield is zero as Nuvve has never declared or paid cash dividends and has no current plans to do so over the expected life of the options.
Risk Free Interest Rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the yields on U.S. Treasury debt securities with maturities approximating the estimated life of the options.
Expected Volatility. The volatility rate was estimated by management based on the average volatility of certain public company peers within Nuvve’s industry corresponding to the expected term of the awards.
Common Stock Valuation
The fair value of Nuvve Common Stock has historically been determined by the Nuvve’s Board of Directors with the assistance of management.
In the absence of a public trading market for Nuvve Common Stock, on each grant date, Nuvve develops an estimate of the fair value of Nuvve Common Stock based on the information known on the date of grant, upon a review of any recent events and their potential impact on the estimated fair value per share of Nuvve Common Stock, and in part on input from third-party valuations.
Nuvve’s valuations of Nuvve Common Stock are determined in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement and the guidelines outlined in the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately-Held-Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation.
The assumptions used to determine the estimated fair value of Nuvve Common Stock are based on numerous objective and subjective factors, combined with management’s judgment, including:
|●||third-party valuations of its common stock;|
|●||external market conditions affecting the EV industry and trends within the industry;|
|●||the rights, preferences, and privileges of Nuvve convertible Series A preferred stock relative to those of Nuvve Common Stock;|
|●||the prices at which Nuvve sold shares of its common stock;|
|●||its financial condition and operating results, including its levels of available capital resources;|
|●||the progress of its research and development efforts, its stage of development, and business strategy;|
|●||the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an initial public offering or a sale of Nuvve given prevailing market conditions;|
|●||the history and nature of Nuvve’s business, industry trends, and competitive environment;|
|●||the lack of marketability of Nuvve Common Stock;|
|●||equity market conditions affecting comparable public companies; and|
|●||general U.S. and global market conditions.|
In determining the fair value of Nuvve Common Stock, Nuvve established the enterprise value of its business using the market approach and the income approach. Nuvve also estimated the enterprise value by reference to the closest round of equity financing preceding the date of the valuation if such financing took place around the valuation date. Under the income approach, forecasted cash flows are discounted to the present value at a risk-adjusted discount rate. The valuation analyses determine discrete free cash flows over multiple years based on forecasted financial information provided by Nuvve’s management and a terminal value for the residual period beyond the discrete forecast, which are discounted at its estimated weighted-average cost of capital to estimate its enterprise value. Under the market approach, a group of guideline publicly-traded companies with similar financial and operating characteristics to Nuvve are selected, and valuation multiples based on the guideline public companies’ financial information and market data are calculated. Based on the observed valuation multiples, an appropriate multiple was selected to apply to Nuvve’s historical and forecasted revenue results.
In allocating the equity value of Nuvve’s business among the various classes of equity securities, it used the option pricing model (“OPM”) method, which models each class of equity securities as a call option with a unique claim on its assets. The OPM treats Nuvve Common Stock and convertible Series A preferred stock as call options on an equity value with exercise prices based on the liquidation preference of its redeemable convertible preferred stock. The common stock is modeled as a call option with a claim on the equity value at an exercise price equal to the remaining value immediately after its redeemable convertible preferred stock is liquidated. The exclusive reliance on the OPM is appropriate when the range of possible future outcomes was difficult to predict and resulted in a highly speculative forecast.
Since August 2020, Nuvve used a hybrid method utilizing a combination of the OPM and the probability weighted expected return method (“PWERM”). The PWERM is a scenario-based methodology that estimates the fair value of common shares based upon an analysis of future values for Nuvve, assuming various outcomes.
The common share value is based on the probability-weighted present value of expected future investment returns considering two possible scenarios available as well as the rights of each class of shares. These two scenarios are: (i) a transaction with a SPAC and (ii) remaining a private company. The value of the common shares is determined based on an analysis of Nuvve’s operations and projections as of the valuation date, as well as its expected SPAC value for which we have discounted back to the valuation date at an appropriate risk-adjusted discount rate. We then probability weighted each outcome to arrive at an indication of value for the common shares. Nuvve used the OPM and the PWERM to allocate the equity value of its business among the various classes of stock.
After the allocation to the various classes of equity securities, a discount for lack of marketability (“DLOM”) was applied to arrive at a fair value of common stock. A DLOM was meant to account for the lack of marketability of a stock that was not publicly traded. In making the final determination of common stock value, consideration was also given to recent sales of common stock.
Application of these approaches and methodologies involves the use of estimates, judgments, and assumptions that are highly complex and subjective, such as those regarding Nuvve’s expected future revenue, expenses, and future cash flows, discount rates, market multiples, the selection of comparable public companies, and the probability of and timing associated with possible future events. Changes in any or all of these estimates and assumptions or the relationships between those assumptions impact Nuvve’s valuations as of each valuation date and may have a material impact on the valuation of Nuvve Common Stock. Following the Business Combination, it will not be necessary to estimate the fair value of PubCo Common Stock as the shares will be traded in a public market.
Convertible Notes Payable Conversion Option Liability
The next equity financing conversion option on the convertible notes payable is classified as a liability which is recorded at fair value upon issuance and is subject to remeasurement to fair value at each balance sheet date, as the settlement of the next equity financing conversion options will result in the delivery of a number of shares determined based on a combination of fixed and variable conversion prices. Changes in the fair value of the conversion option are recognized in Nuvve’s consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. Nuvve will continue to adjust the liability for changes in fair value until the exercise of the conversion option into Nuvve common stock. At that time, the conversion option liability will be reclassified to Nuvve common stock or additional paid-in capital, as applicable.
Investment in Dreev
As more fully discussed in Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements, in February 2019, Nuvve licensed certain of its patents, know-how, and software copyrights (the “Dreev IP”) to Dreev to develop and commercialize the Dreev IP in France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Italy, with a promise to transfer the patents to Dreev in the future, in exchange for an initial 49% ownership stake in Dreev. Nuvve recognized $3,200,700 of other income in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the year ended December 31, 2019, in connection with recording its 49% stake in Dreev, at the fair value of the shares of Dreev received by Nuvve. Nuvve backsolved the fair value of the noncash consideration received for the license and transfer of intellectual property to Dreev by reference to the price paid in cash by the other owner for its 51% share in Dreev. After the investment, although Nuvve did not maintain control over Dreev, it determined it was able to exercise significant influence with respect to Dreev, so Nuvve initially accounted for the investment on the equity method of accounting and recorded 49% of Dreev’s net loss, or $629,748, included in other expense for the year ended December 31, 2019. After selling 36% of its 49% equity interest in Dreev in October 2019, Nuvve determined that it no longer can exercise significant influence over the operations of Dreev. Accordingly, Nuvve discontinued accounting for its investment in Dreev under the equity method at that time.
Nuvve utilizes the asset and liability method in accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect the estimated future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Deferred tax expense or benefit is the result of changes in the deferred tax asset and liability. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets where it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Nuvve makes estimates, assumptions, and judgments to determine its provision for its income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets. Nuvve assesses the likelihood that its deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income, and to the extent it believes that recovery is not likely, it establishes a valuation allowance.
Nuvve recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits which, as of the date of this report, have not been material, are recognized within provision for income taxes.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 of Nuvve’s consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for more information regarding recently issued accounting pronouncements.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Foreign Currency Risk
Nuvve has foreign currency risks related to its revenue and operating expenses denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, primarily the Euro, Great British Pound and Danish Krone, causing both its revenue and its operating results to be impacted by fluctuations in the exchange rates. Gains or losses from the revaluation of certain cash balances, accounts receivable balances and intercompany balances that are denominated in these currencies impact Nuvve’s net loss. A hypothetical decrease in all foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar of 10%, would not result in a material foreign currency loss on foreign-denominated balances, as of December 31, 2020. As Nuvve’s foreign operations expand, its results may be materially impacted by fluctuations in the exchange rates of the currencies in which it does business. At this time, Nuvve does not enter into financial instruments to hedge its foreign currency exchange risk, but it may in the future.
Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
In connection with the preparation and audit of Nuvve’s consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, material weaknesses were identified in its internal control over financial reporting. See the subsection titled “Risk Factors — Nuvve has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting.”
Emerging Growth Company Accounting Election
Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can choose not to take advantage of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, and any such election to not take advantage of the extended transition period is irrevocable. PubCo is an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(A) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and has elected to take advantage of the benefits of this extended transition period.
PubCo expects to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public business entities and non-public business entities until the earlier of the date PubCo (a) is no longer an emerging growth company or (b) affirmatively and irrevocably opts out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. This may make it difficult or impossible to compare PubCo’s financial results with the financial results of another public company that is either not an emerging growth company or is an emerging growth company that has chosen not to take advantage of the extended transition period exemptions because of the potential differences in accounting standards used. See Note 2 of the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements and unaudited consolidated financial statements of Nuvve included elsewhere in this report for the recent accounting pronouncements adopted and the recent accounting pronouncements not yet adopted for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
In addition, PubCo intends to rely on the other exemptions and reduced reporting requirements provided by the JOBS Act. Subject to certain conditions set forth in the JOBS Act, if, as an emerging growth company, PubCo intends to rely on such exemptions, PubCo is not required to, among other things: (a) provide an auditor’s attestation report on PubCo’s system of internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: (b) provide all of the compensation disclosure that may be required of non-emerging growth public companies under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; (c) comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the consolidated financial statements (auditor discussion and analysis); and (d) disclose certain executive compensation-related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and comparisons of the Chief Executive Officer’s compensation to median employee compensation.
PubCo will remain an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act until the earliest of (a) the last day of PubCo’s first fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of Newborn’s IPO, (b) the last date of PubCo’s fiscal year in which PubCo has total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (c) the date on which PubCo is deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the rules of the SEC with at least $700.0 million of outstanding securities held by non-affiliates or (d) the date on which PubCo has issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the previous three years.
Nuvve is a green energy technology company that provides, directly and through business ventures with its partners, a globally-available, commercial V2G technology platform that enables EV batteries to store and resell unused energy back to the local electric grid and provide other grid services. Simply put, Nuvve bridges the gap between transportation and energy. Its proprietary V2G technology — Nuvve’s Grid Integrated Vehicle (GIVe) platform — has the potential to refuel the next generation of EV fleets through cutting-edge, bi-directional charging solutions. Nuvve believes its GIVe platform is the most advanced V2G platform on the market, as it is the only one qualified by multiple grid system operators around the world to provide grid services.
Nuvve’s mission is to lower the cost of EV ownership while supporting the integration of renewable energy sources including solar and wind. Nuvve plans to achieve this goal by providing its enterprise customers (fleet and building managers, municipalities, and public organizations such as school districts) and consumers, the technology they need to transform their EVs into grid-integrated energy storage resources when those vehicles are plugged in, while guaranteeing the expected level of charge at the time the driver needs it for transportation. Storage resources are critical to the effective utilization of renewable energy sources, many of which exhibit volatile energy generation based on environmental conditions, rather than based on demand.
Since its founding in 2010, Nuvve has been responsible for successful V2G projects on five continents and is deploying commercial services worldwide.
Overview of Nuvve’s Technology
Nuvve’s proprietary V2G technology enables it to link multiple EV batteries into a virtual power plant to provide bi-directional services to the electrical grid in a qualified and secure manner. Virtual power plants can generate revenue by selling excess power to utility companies or utilizing the saved power to reduce building energy peak consumption. Nuvve is capable of providing many levels of vehicle-grid integration and V2G services such as time of use optimization (“TOU”), demand response, demand charge management and wholesale energy market participation, thereby providing revenues from grid services as well as utility bill savings behind the meter.
Nuvve’s longest running commercial operation is in Denmark, where it has provided V2G services for more than four years with daily bidding on energy markets. Specifically, this operation aggregates a coalition of EV batteries to provide a primary frequency containment reserve (“FCR”) service to the local transmission system operator. The frequency of the current transmitted on an electrical grid is affected by the demand placed on the grid. By acting as a reserve to store or release energy into the grid in order to offset variations in demand, the FCR service provided by Nuvve’s GIVe software platform assists the local system operator in the critical task of frequency regulation.
Over the four years in this deployment, Nuvve accumulated many hours of valuable learning on fleet operation and energy market behavior. This Denmark-based fleet is driven primarily during the day and is parked at night and on weekends, allowing it on average about 17 hours of available market participation per day. While FCR values in Denmark fluctuated over the two-year period from 2017 to 2018, Nuvve was able to generate approximately US$2,000 per car per year in market revenue on average.
The V2G services revenue gives Nuvve’s customers a lower total cost of electric vehicle ownership through benefits such as reduced charger costs, low or free energy costs to drive, fleet management tools, and yearly maintenance. This Denmark deployment showcased Nuvve’s ability to adapt its V2G software to match requirements for market participation and interconnection to the grid — vehicles in this commercial V2G operation are each connected to 10kW bi-directional DC chargers that are controlled by Nuvve’s V2G GIVe platform. As each vehicle is plugged in, Nuvve’s software automatically takes control of each vehicle’s charging and discharging. Nuvve aggregates multiple electric vehicles into a coalition.
The total available capacity from a coalition of aggregated electric vehicles is then bid onto the frequency-controlled reserve market. It is the design of Nuvve’s V2G platform that enables it to aggregate electric vehicles into a virtual power plant to provide services to the grid bi-directionally. This design incorporates (1) aggregation capabilities for available vehicles, charging stations and stationary batteries; (2) the ability to receive signals from and thereby know the needs of the grid at generation, transmission, distribution and behind-the-meter regions; and (3) real-time optimization that matches available coalition capacity onto grid needs on a second-by-second basis, all while ensuring the desired EV battery charge level at drive time.
Electric vehicles are inherently unreliable grid resources because their primary transportation function can cause them to be plugged in or unplugged at any time with varying states of charge. Nuvve’s platform transforms these unreliable resources into reliable, dispatchable and monetizable assets; this helps stabilize the grid, enables increased renewables penetration, reduces the total cost of EV ownership and encourages EV adoption. From the user perspective, the V2G operation is seamless as Nuvve’s V2G platform reduces the cost of ownership and ensures EVs are sufficiently charged to meet their primary transportation functions. Vehicle operators can use Nuvve’s fleet management app and set driving needs for any given day to fulfill their driving duties.
Market Opportunity and the Nuvve Solution
The EV industry has grown rapidly since Nuvve was founded in 2010. Nuvve believes that the market for plug-in electric vehicles (“PEV”) will continue to experience significant growth in the future as consumers demand vehicles with greater fuel efficiency, greater performance, lower operational costs, and lower emissions. Increasingly stringent federal and state fuel economy standards and other state and local incentives and rebates for EVs also have driven, and Nuvve expects will to continue to drive, demand for EVs. In addition, countries around the world are expected to become increasingly focused on meeting climate goals, in part, by reducing the environmental effects of internal combustion engine vehicles. To illustrate, passenger EV sales are expected to increase from 2.6% of new vehicles sold in 2019 to 29.2% in 2030 in the United States and Europe according to a recent report entitled “Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) Electric Vehicle Outlook 2020.” Additional factors propelling this shift to electrification include proposed fossil fuel bans or restrictions, transit electrification mandates, utility incentive programs and declining battery costs. Accordingly, the BNEF report projects that the cumulative EV charging infrastructure investment in North America and Europe will be approximately $60 billion by 2030 and increasing to $192 billion by 2040.
However, as PEV adoption grows, demand for electricity as a transportation fuel may lead to congestion and overloading on transmission and local distribution grids. Simultaneously, higher penetration of renewable energy sources (such as solar and wind generation) inherently increases grid volatility. Nuvve believes that this combination of factors further drives the need for intelligent vehicle-grid integration and V2G capabilities to effectively regulate grid voltage and frequency on a real time basis and address other common challenges such as massive morning and afternoon grid ramping.
With V2G services capturing available grid value streams such as frequency regulation, adaptive power, smart charging, smart charging/discharging and peak-shaving services as part of the solution, the PEV fleet owner/operator can symbiotically assist in improving and assuring grid stabilization while earning revenues. These revenues can be shared with the ratepayer to save in transportation energy costs and thereby effectively lower the cost of PEV ownership. V2G services can also help mitigate intermittency issues associated with renewables by (1) continuously injecting or absorbing energy to and from the grid every few seconds to help to regulate frequency; and (2) be orderly and intelligently dispatched over a larger time period to mitigate the enormous needs for capacity ramping. Perhaps most importantly, PEVs represent one of the most appropriate solutions to act as dispatchable distributed energy resources during renewable-rich mid-day periods by absorbing excess energy which might otherwise be curtailed or create transmission network congestion problems.
Nuvve understands that the widespread adoption of electric mobility and renewable generation resources like solar and wind will require that EVs be utilized as bi-directional distributed energy resources to help stabilize the grid and get paid for providing valuable grid services. Further, Nuvve believes that commercial fleet EVs represent the best initial addressable market for V2G because for commercial fleets, the shift from internal combustion vehicles to EV can bring numerous advantages:
|1.||Lower “fuel” costs and more sustainable, efficient and convenient infrastructure.|
|2.||Lower maintenance costs for EVs compared to internal combustion engine vehicles.|
|3.||Reduced maintenance down time for EVs compared to internal combustion engine vehicles.|
|4.||EV charging does not present all of the same environmental risks of liquid refueling, as it does not involve the storage and release of hydrocarbons at the refueling site.|
|5.||The specific use cases for EVs by fleet operators, which often involve multiple shorter trips, can alleviate the range anxiety that has been a limiting factor in electric vehicle adoption to date.|
Additionally, Nuvve believes that commercial fleet EVs are the best initial target market for V2G because the additional revenue potential would offset the higher up-front cost of EVs and further lower the total cost of ownership compared to traditional gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine vehicles.
Nuvve also believes that significant value can be derived from aggregating electric vehicles into a virtual power plant to provide grid services that can be monetized in the energy and power capacity markets. Nuvve’s GIVe software platform was created to harness capacity from “loads” at the edge of the distribution grid (i.e., coalitions of aggregated EVs and small stationary batteries) in a qualified, controlled and secure manner to provide many of the grid services offered by conventional generation sources (i.e., coal and natural gas plants). Nuvve’s current addressable energy and capacity markets for targeted grid services (frequency regulation, demand charge management, demand response, energy optimization, distribution grid services and energy arbitrage) are estimated to be of considerable value — each ranging from $3 billion to $250 billion per year.
Since 2010, Nuvve has been optimizing its Energy Software as a Service (SaaS) model into a product that is adaptable (evolving with energy markets worldwide), adjustable (micro-service based to enable quick iteration) and scalable (compatible with widely adopted standards for EVs and charging stations). The result is a flexible, recurring revenue model where fleet customers can share in the value generated from their vehicles by Nuvve’s GIVe software platform. Today, Nuvve continues to advance its software platform’s ability to conduct forecasting, bidding, dispatching and reporting functionalities — so that the needs of the driver, the grid and the EV battery are continually met.
Nuvve’s strategy incorporates a diversified set of segments, geographies and partners, including light duty fleets, heavy duty fleets, automotive OEMs, charge point operators, and strategic partnerships located in Europe, Asia (including Japan) and North America.
|●||Light duty fleet customers are typically organizations that operate vehicle fleets for delivery and logistics, as shared transit for sales, service and other functions requiring a motorpool and for ridesharing services. Nuvve believes these customers choose to electrify their fleets for economic reasons, as the comparative total cost of ownership favors electrification. Nuvve’s GIVe software platform can help them lower operating costs and achieve sustainability goals. Nuvve offers networked charging stations, infrastructure, software, professional services, support, monitoring and parts and labor warranties required to run electric vehicle fleets, as well as low or free energy costs. The light duty fleet segment is accessed via direct sales force and world-wide channel partners.|
|●||Heavy duty fleet customers are typically organizations that operate vehicle fleets in the school bus, shuttle bus, delivery truck, refuse truck, and transit bus segments. Nuvve believes these customers choose to electrify their fleets for economic reasons, as the comparative total cost of ownership favors electrification. Nuvve’s GIVe software platform can help them lower operating costs and achieve sustainability goals. Nuvve offers networked charging stations, infrastructure, software, professional services, support, monitoring and parts and labor warranties required to run electric vehicle fleets, as well as low or free energy costs. The heavy duty fleet segment is accessed via direct sales force and world-wide channel partners.|
|●||Automotive OEM customers are typically organizations that develop and manufacture electric vehicles targeted for sale to their customers. Nuvve believes automotive OEM customers recognize that Nuvve’s GIVe software platform can help their customers lower operating costs and achieve sustainability goals, thereby helping to increase electric vehicle sales. Nuvve integrates its technology into the automotive OEM’s EV platforms in order make their vehicles compatible with the GIVe software platform. The automotive OEM segment is accessed via world-wide channel partners.|
|●||Charge point operator customers are typically organizations that own, operate and provide EV charging equipment and networked EV charging services. Nuvve believes charge point operator customers recognize that Nuvve’s GIVe software platform can help their customers lower operating costs and achieve sustainability goals, thereby helping to increase the relative attractiveness of their charging network within this highly competitive segment. Nuvve integrates its technology into charge point operator platforms in order to make their charging station network compatible with the GIVe software platform. The charge point operator segment is accessed via world-wide channel partners.|
|●||Strategic partnerships are typically joint ventures formed with strategic partners to help commercialize Nuvve’s technology and services within a given territory. Nuvve believes strategic partnerships are an important way to accelerate the adoption of its GIVe software platform world-wide. One such strategic partnership is Dreev, a business venture formed in 2019 between Nuvve (who provided its technology and know-how) and its strategic partner EDF (who provided capital and a subsidiary partner ecosystem) to address the territory within France, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy and Germany. Nuvve agreed to assign to Dreev its rights to the V2G technology in these territories. Nuvve presently holds a 13% interest in Dreev. The parties have certain put and call option rights under the agreements for the business venture, including a call option for each party upon a change in control of the other party. While Nuvve anticipates that it will maintain or increase its stake in the business venture, there can be no assurance that it will be able to do so.|
Nuvve currently views the North American school bus segment to be one of its highest priorities world-wide. Nuvve anticipates the electrification of school buses to experience significant growth in the next 2 to 5 years, as there are over 600,000 school buses on the road today in the US and Canada. Approximately 95% of them are diesel with an average age of over 11 years. Leading school bus OEMs are thereby ramping up their electric bus production capacity in response to an increasing interest from school districts and fleet operators across the US and Canada. The electric school bus segment thereby represents a key growth opportunity for Nuvve to sell V2G capable charging stations and establish long-term recurring revenue streams from grid services. Following announcements during 2020 with leading OEMs in the North American electric school bus segment, Nuvve is further developing its offerings to bring turnkey V2G solutions with finance packages to customers, including equipment financing, V2G services, infrastructure and maintenance operations, via special purpose vehicles.
Nuvve also operates a small number of company-owned charging stations serving as demonstration projects funded by government grants. Although to date a substantial portion of Nuvve’s revenues have been derived from these grant funded projects and Nuvve expects growth in company-owned stations and the related government grant funding to continue, Nuvve anticipates that such projects will constitute a declining percentage of its business as its commercial operations expand.
Nuvve expects to generate revenue primarily from the provision of services to the grid via its GIVe software platform and sales of V2G-enabled charging stations. In the case of light duty fleet and heavy duty fleet customers, Nuvve also may receive a mobility fee, which is a recurring fixed payment made by fleet customers per fleet vehicle. In addition, Nuvve may generate non-recurring engineering services revenue derived from the integration of its technology with automotive OEMs and charge point operators. In the case of recurring grid services revenue generated via automotive OEM and charge point operator customer integrations, Nuvve may share the recurring grid services revenue with the customer.
By employing a capital-light business model, Nuvve is able to strategically allocate its capital into research and development, marketing and sales and public policy. Nuvve continues to invest in expanding its GIVe software platform and V2G service capabilities and in the other areas described below, as well as in the service and maintenance of its company-owned stations and those stations with service and maintenance plans.
|●||The development and advancement of Nuvve’s GIVe software platform’s capabilities is critical to fulfilling Nuvve’s product vision for a platform that is adaptable, adjustable and scalable.|
|●||Nuvve believes it is important to continue developing its global sales channels and grow its direct sales capabilities in order to support customer acquisition. This includes expanding its network of global partners who sell, install and maintain Nuvve’s solutions. Nuvve has and will continue to focus on category awareness and consistent branding.|
|●||Nuvve continues to invest in its long-running efforts in policy and utility relationships. Nuvve advocates for policies that advance electric mobility and ensure a healthy industry with a focus on reduction in the barriers to bi-directional/V2G-capable infrastructure deployment, including interconnection processes and advocating for EVs and charging stations to be considered as distributed energy resources able to participate in wholesale energy markets.|
Today, Nuvve believes it is the “first-mover” in the V2G space with clear competitive advantages, as described in “Competition” below.
Nuvve expects significant market opportunities for its V2G solutions as fleet EVs begin to arrive in more meaningful volume in coming years. Nuvve believes that its patent portfolio and significant experience in successfully deploying V2G technology and services presents a significant advantage.
Nuvve’s growth strategies for scaling its V2G technology and services are as follows:
|●||Accelerate new services and product offerings. Nuvve intends to maintain its first-mover advantage via continued efficient investment in engineering and product development.|
|●||Invest in marketing and sales. Nuvve intends to continue attracting new customers and pursue a “portfolio effect” model which enables both V2G and uni-directional (V1G) assets to be efficiently combined in order to boost overall value.|
|●||Pursue strategic acquisitions. Nuvve will explore potential high-quality acquisition opportunities.|
Nuvve currently maintains an in-house field sales force that maintains business relationships with customers and develops new sales opportunities through lead generation and marketing. Nuvve can also sell EV charging hardware and V2G software services through reseller partners, which then sell these products and services to their customers.
Marketing is performed by our in-house staff. To promote and sell our services to customers, we also utilize marketing and communication channels including press releases, email marketing, website (www.nuvve.com), and social media. The information on our websites is not, and will not be deemed, a part of this prospectus or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC.
Nuvve anticipates continuing to expand revenues by selling EV charging equipment to current as well as new customers, which include school bus operators, school districts, universities, stadiums, infrastructure investors via special purpose vehicles, municipal locations, and other fleet operators. In addition to transportation hubs and workplace locations, Nuvve anticipates expanding sales channels to wholesale distributors, utilities, and automotive OEMs.
Nuvve’s revenues have and will be primarily derived from the sale of V2G-capable charging stations and recurring revenues from grid services provided by the GIVe software platform, as more fully described in “Nuvve’s Strategy” above. Historically, a significant portion of its revenue has been derived from government grant funded projects to demonstrate Nuvve’s V2G technology and services.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, Nuvve had two grant-related customers that each accounted for over 10% of its revenue. In the aggregate, these customers accounted for 41% of Nuvve’s revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020. Nuvve’s customer concentration has historically varied based on the receipt of large orders, a trend that Nuvve expects to continue in the near term.
In the year ended December 31, 2020, Nuvve experienced delays in completing integration projects with three of its automotive OEM customers, as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the customer’s operations. Nuvve expects the integration projects to be completed in 2021.
Nuvve does not manufacture electric vehicle charging stations. The company integrates its technology into V2G-capable charging stations made by dedicated manufacturing partners located throughout the world.
Nuvve has not experienced any disruptions in its supply chain as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, certain of its charging station manufacturing partners experienced longer lead times in the acquisition of critical components, leading to delays in completing certain integration projects.
Nuvve provides a globally-available, commercial V2G technology platform that enables EV batteries to store and resell unused energy back to the local electric grid. While Nuvve believes its GIVe platform is the most advanced V2G platform on the market, as it is the only one qualified by multiple grid system operators around the world to provide grid services, it operates within the highly competitive EV charging equipment and service market. Nuvve primarily competes with less advanced charge point operator EV charge management platforms providing fleet charging services without bi-directional capabilities, such as ChargePoint, Mobility House, EnelX, Shell-NewMotion, Blink and Ovo Energy. There are also additional entrants into the connected EV charging station equipment market, such as General Electric, SemaCharge, EVConnect, Fermata and Greenlots. Nuvve expects this market to become increasingly competitive as new entrants enter the growing market. Nuvve’s products and services compete on the basis of product capability (such as V2G capability), performance and features, total cost of ownership, sales capabilities, financial stability, brand recognition, product reliability and size of installed base.
Nuvve’s V2G platform, and the revenue it generates, allows Nuvve to provide its customers with a lower total cost of electric vehicle ownership through benefits such as reduced charger costs, low or free energy costs to drive, fleet management tools, and yearly maintenance. Nuvve believe its competitors have historically struggled with gaining the technology and know-how necessary to establish a functional V2G software platform capable of aggregating electric vehicles into a virtual power plant and providing services to the grid bi-directionally, although they could build this capability in the future. While Tesla does offer EV charging services, these do not include V2G and Nuvve does not believe Tesla vehicles are capable of bi-directional power flow. There are many other large and small EV charger companies that offer non-networked or “basic” chargers that have limited customer leverage, but could provide a low-cost solution for basic charger needs in commercial and home locations. Because its competitors’ platforms are less advanced in providing V2G services, Nuvve believes it faces limited direct competition.
Nuvve believes it has competitive advantages over its competitors, such as its intellectual property portfolio (Nuvve owns key patents for V2G); qualification by transmission system operators (Nuvve is already qualified by multiple operators, making it easier for it to expand into other areas); experience (over a decade of experience of market participation and stakeholder interaction); and data ownership (Nuvve has accumulated vast amounts of data, which is the key for rapid and future developments). However, many of our existing and potential competitors have substantially greater financial, marketing, sales, distribution, manufacturing and technological resources than Nuvve does. We may be unable to compete effectively against our competitors, either because they have greater resources or name recognition than we do, because their products and services are superior or more cost efficient than ours, or because they make technical advances to which we are unable to respond.
Government Regulation and Incentives
State, regional and local regulations for installation of EV charging stations and the provision of grid services vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and may include permitting requirements, inspection requirements, licensing of contractors and certifications, as examples. Compliance with such regulations may cause installation delays.
Public Utility Commissions
To operate Nuvve’s systems, Nuvve or its customer obtains interconnection permission from the applicable local primary electric utility. Depending on local law requirements, permission is provided by the local utility directly to Nuvve and/or its customers. In some cases, permissions are issued on the basis of a standard process that has been pre-approved by the local public utility commission or other regulatory body with jurisdiction over metering policies. However, in other cases, regulatory approvals from the local public utility commission or other regulatory body are required.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (“NEMA”) is the association of electrical equipment and medical imaging manufacturers. NEMA provides a forum for the development of technical standards that are in the best interests of the industry and users, advocacy of industry policies on legislative and regulatory matters, and collection, analysis, and dissemination of industry data. All charging station products used or sold by Nuvve comply with the NEMA standards that are applicable to such products.
Waste Handling and Disposal
Nuvve is subject to laws and regulations regarding the handling and disposal of hazardous substances and solid wastes, including electronic wastes and batteries. These laws generally regulate the generation, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal of solid and hazardous waste, and may impose strict, joint and several liability for the investigation and remediation of areas where hazardous substances may have been released or disposed. For instance, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), also known as the Superfund law, in the United States and comparable state laws impose liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons that contributed to the release of a hazardous substance into the environment. These persons include current and prior owners or operators of the site where the release occurred as well as companies that disposed or arranged for the disposal of hazardous substances found at the site. Under CERCLA, these persons may be subject to joint and several strict liability for the costs of cleaning up the hazardous substances that have been released into the environment, for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. CERCLA also authorizes the EPA and, in some instances, third parties to act in response to threats to the public health or the environmental and to seek to recover from the responsible classes of persons the costs they incur. Nuvve may handle hazardous substances within the meaning of CERCLA, or similar state statutes, in the course of ordinary operations and, as a result, may be jointly and severally liable under CERCLA for all or part of the costs required to clean up sites at which these hazardous substances have been released into the environment.
Nuvve may also generate solid wastes, which may include hazardous wastes that are subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”), and comparable state statutes. While RCRA regulates both solid and hazardous wastes, it imposes strict requirements on the generation, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous wastes. Certain components of products used or sold by Nuvve are excluded from RCRA’s hazardous waste regulations, provided certain requirements are met. However, if these components do not meet all of the established requirements for the exclusion, or if the requirements for the exclusion change, Nuvve may be required to treat such products as hazardous waste, which are subject to more rigorous and costly disposal requirements. Any such changes in the laws and regulations, or Nuvve’s ability to qualify the materials it uses for exclusions under such laws and regulations, could adversely affect Nuvve’s operating expenses.
Similar laws exist in other jurisdictions where Nuvve operates. Additionally, in the European Union (“EU”), Nuvve is subject to the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”) Directive. The WEEE Directive provides for the creation of collection scheme where consumers return WEEE to merchants, such as Nuvve. If Nuvve fails to properly manage such WEEE, it may be subject to fines, sanctions, or other actions that may adversely affect Nuvve’s financial operations.
Nuvve is subject to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, as amended (“OSHA”). OSHA establishes certain employer responsibilities, including maintenance of a workplace free of recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious injury, compliance with standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and various record keeping, disclosure and procedural requirements. Various standards, including standards for notices of hazards, safety in excavation and demolition work and the handling of asbestos, may apply to Nuvve’s operations. Nuvve complies with OSHA regulations.
The regulations mandated by the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (“CAFE”) standards set the average new vehicle fuel economy, as weighted by sales, that a manufacturer’s fleet must achieve. Although Nuvve is not a car manufacturer and is thus not directly subject to the CAFE standards, Nuvve believes such standards may have a material effect on its business. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 raised the fuel economy standards of America’s cars, light trucks, and sport utility vehicles to a combined average of at least 35 miles per gallon (“mpg”) by 2020 — a 10 mpg increase over 2007 levels — and required standards to be met at maximum feasible levels through 2030. Building on the success of the first phase of the National Program, the second phase of fuel economy and global warming pollution standards for light duty vehicles covers model years 2017 – 2025. These standards were finalized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) in August 2012. These standards would have required a reduction in average carbon dioxide emissions of new passenger cars and light trucks to 163 grams per mile (g/mi) in model year 2025. Manufacturers may choose to comply with these standards by manufacturing more EVs which would mean that more charging stations of the type Nuvve uses and sells will be needed.
However, in April 2020, EPA and NHTSA finalized the Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Rule (the “SAFE Rule”), which reformulated the required reductions, establishing average carbon dioxide emissions of new passenger cars and light trucks of 240 g/mi in model year 2026. Several states and groups have announced intentions to sue the United States government over this reformulation, so the final CAFE standards cannot currently be predicted with any certainty. However, to the extent fuel-efficiency standards are decreased, this may result in less demand for EVs and, in turn, less demand for Nuvve’s V2G technology and services.
Research and Development
Nuvve has invested a significant amount of time and expense into research and development of its GIVe software platform and V2G technology and services. Nuvve’s ability to maintain its leadership position depends in part on its ongoing research and development activities. Nuvve’s engineering team is responsible for the design, development, manufacturing and testing of its V2G technology and services. Nuvve fo