As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 22, 2022

Registration No. 333-_______

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

  

 

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

  

 

 

NUVVE HOLDING CORP.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Delaware   86-1617000
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

2488 Historic Decatur Road

San Diego, California 92106

(619) 456-5161

 

Gregory Poilasne

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Nuvve Holding Corp.

2488 Historic Decatur Road

San Diego, California 92106

(619) 456-5161

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Office)   (Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

Copies to:

 

David Alan Miller, Esq.

Eric T. Schwartz, Esq.

Graubard Miller
405 Lexington Avenue, 11th Floor
New York, New York 10174
Telephone: (212) 818-8800
Fax: (212) 818-8881

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒

 

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

If this form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐  Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
    Emerging Growth Company ☒ 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ☐

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

Included in this registration statement on Form S-3 is a base prospectus for the offering by us of an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, warrants, debt securities and/or units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities offered hereby, at an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000.

 

Also included in this registration statement on Form S-3 is a prospectus (the “ATM Prospectus”) for an at-the-market offering by us of up to a maximum amount of $25,000,000 of our common stock that may be offered and sold under an equity distribution agreement between us and Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC (the “ATM Agreement”).

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The ATM Prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered and sold by us under the ATM Prospectus is included in the $100,000,000 of securities that may be offered and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the ATM Agreement, any portion of the $25,000,000 included in the ATM Prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the ATM Prospectus will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus.

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus Subject to Completion Dated April 22, 2022

 

 

Nuvve Holding Corp.

 

$100,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Warrants

Debt Securities

Units

 

We may offer and sell from time to time shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, warrants to purchase any of the other classes of securities offered hereby, debt securities and/or units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities offered hereby, at an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000. The securities may be offered separately, together, or in series, and in amounts, at prices and on other terms to be determined at the time of each offering. We will specify the terms of the securities being offered in one or more prospectus supplements, which may also supplement, update or amend information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors, to or through underwriters or dealers or through agents designated from time to time, among other methods. The prospectus supplement for each offering will describe in detail the specific plan of distribution for the securities. The prospectus supplement also will set forth the price to the public of such securities, any placement agent’s fees or underwriter’s discounts and commissions, and the net proceeds we expect to receive from the sale of the securities.

 

Our common stock and pre-merger warrants are listed for trading on the Capital Market of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, or “Nasdaq,” under the symbols “NVVE” and “NVVEW,” respectively. On April 21, 2022, the closing price of our common stock was $7.15 and the closing price of our pre-merger warrants was $0.829.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” on page 3 in this prospectus and elsewhere in any supplements for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is _______, 2022

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS ii
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION iii
INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE iii
NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTOR SUMMARY iv
OUR COMPANY 1
RISK FACTORS 3
USE OF PROCEEDS 3
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 4
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 8
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 13
DESCRIPTION OF THE UNITS 19
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION OF SECURITIES 20
LEGAL MATTERS 22
EXPERTS 22

 

i 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement under the Securities Act on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the “SEC” using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf process, we may, from time to time, sell or issue any of the combination of securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings with a maximum aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in that prospectus supplement.

 

As permitted under the rules of the SEC, this prospectus incorporates important business information about us that is contained in documents that we file with the SEC but that are not included in or delivered with this prospectus. This prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the documents we incorporate by reference herein include important information about us and our common stock, and other information you should know before investing. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information and, if provided, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us. Neither this prospectus nor any prospectus supplement nor any issuer free writing prospectus shall constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy offered securities in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offering or solicitation. This prospectus does not contain and any prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus will not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits.

 

You should not assume that the information appearing in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of this prospectus. You should not assume that the information contained in any prospectus supplement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein or in any issuer free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the respective dates of those documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

We are not making any representation to any purchaser regarding the legality of an investment by such purchaser under any legal investment or similar laws or regulations. You should not consider any information in this prospectus to be legal, business or tax advice. You should consult your own attorney, business advisor and tax advisor for legal, business and tax advice regarding an investment in our securities.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, in this prospectus, “Nuvve” and the “Company” and “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Nuvve OpCo and its subsidiaries, for periods prior to the Business Combination, and to Nuvve HoldCo and its subsidiaries, including Nuvve OpCo, for periods after the Business Combination. In addition:

 

Business Combination” refers to the business combination between Newborn, Nuvve OpCo and Nuvve Holdco as described below.

 

Newborn” refers to Newborn Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands company, which is Nuvve Holding Corp.’s predecessor.

 

Nuvve OpCo” refers to Nuvve Corporation, a Delaware corporation acquired by us in the Business Combination.

 

Nuvve HoldCo” refers to Nuvve Holding Corp., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Nuvve Corporation after the Business Combination.

 

pre-merger warrants” refers to the warrants issued pursuant to the warrant agreement, dated as of February 13, 2010 and amended as of March 19, 2021, between us and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent (“Warrant Agreement”), which were assumed by us in the Business Combination.

 

On March 19, 2021, Nuvve HoldCo consummated the Business Combination contemplated by that certain merger agreement, dated as of November 11, 2020 and amended as of February 20, 2021, or the “Merger Agreement,” by and among Newborn, Nuvve OpCo, Nuvve HoldCo, Nuvve Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of Nuvve HoldCo, or “Merger Sub,” and Ted Smith, as the representative of the Nuvve stockholders. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the Business Combination was effected through (i) the reincorporation of Newborn by the merger of Newborn with and into Nuvve HoldCo, with Nuvve HoldCo surviving as the publicly traded entity, or the “Reincorporation Merger,” and (ii) immediately after the Reincorporation Merger, the merger of Merger Sub with and into Nuvve OpCo, with Nuvve OpCo surviving as the wholly-owned subsidiary of Nuvve HoldCo, or the “Acquisition Merger.” On the closing date of the Business Combination, Nuvve HoldCo changed its name to “Nuvve Holding Corp.”

 

ii 

 

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room at 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information about the public reference room.

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement, at prescribed rates, from the SEC at the address listed above.

 

The registration statement and our SEC filings, including the documents referred to below under “Information Incorporated by Reference,” are also available on our website, www.nuvve.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.

 

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below, all filings we make under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the initial filing date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, and all filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after effectiveness of such registration statement and prior to the sale of all of the securities offered hereby:

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 (filed on March 31, 2022), as amended on Form 10-K/A (filed on April 22, 2022);

 

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 14, 2022; and

 

the description of our common stock on Form 8-K12B, effective March 25, 2021, registering our common stock pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act pursuant to Rule 12g-3 thereunder, including any amendment(s) or report(s) filed for the purpose of updating such description, including the description of securities filed as an exhibit to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Any statement contained in a document filed before the date of this prospectus and incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. Any information that we file after the date of this prospectus with the SEC and incorporated by reference herein will automatically update and supersede the information contained in this prospectus and in any document previously incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we are not incorporating any document or portion thereof or information deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rule.

 

We will provide you with a copy of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, without charge, upon written or oral request directed to Nuvve Holding Corp., 2488 Historic Decatur Road, San Diego, California 92106, telephone number (619) 456-5161. You may also access the documents incorporated by reference as described under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

iii 

 

 

NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

 

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act,” and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the “Exchange Act.” All statements, other than statements of present or historical fact included in this prospectus, our future financial performance, strategy, expansion plans, future operations, future operating results, estimated revenues, losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. Any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination, and the financial conditions, results of operations, earnings outlook and prospects of Nuvve and other statements about the period following the consummation of the Business Combination. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “believe,” “estimate,” “continue,” “goal,” “project” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We caution you that these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control.

 

The section in this prospectus titled “Risk Factors,” including the information incorporated by reference therein, and the other cautionary language discussed in this prospectus provide examples of risks and uncertainties that may cause actual developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including those relating to:

 

our early stage of development, our history of net losses, and our expectation for losses to continue in the future;

 

our ability to manage growth effectively;

 

our reliance on charging station manufacturing and other partners;

 

existing and future competition in the EV charging market;

 

pandemics and health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

our ability to increase sales of our products and services, especially to fleet operators;

 

the adoption of bi-directional Vehicle-to-Grid technology;

 

the rate of electrification of U.S. school bus fleets, and other fleet vehicles;

 

our participation in the energy markets;

 

the interconnection of our GIVe™️ platform to the electrical grid;

 

the rate of adoption of Transportation-as-a-Service;

 

significant payments under the intellectual property acquisition agreement pursuant which the University of Delaware assigned to us certain of its key patents underlying the V2G technology;

 

our international operations, including related tax, compliance, market and other risks;

 

iv 

 

 

our ability to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical and vehicle engineering personnel;

 

inexperience of our management in operating a public company;

 

acquisitions by us of other businesses;

 

the rate of adoption of EVs;

 

the rate of technological change in the industry;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property rights;

 

our investment in research and development;

 

our ability to expand sales and marketing capabilities;

 

our ability to raise additional funds when needed;

 

our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of our Levo joint venture;

 

the existence of identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting;

 

electric utility statutes and regulations and changes to such statutes or regulations;

 

volatility in the trading price of our securities; and

 

our status as an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act.

 

Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize or should any of the assumptions made by the management of Nuvve prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements concerning any matters addressed in this prospectus and attributable to Nuvve or any person acting on their behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this prospectus. Except to the extent required by applicable law or regulation, Nuvve undertakes no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

v 

 

 

OUR COMPANY

 

The following is a summary of some of the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus which we believe to be important. We have selected highlights of material aspects of our business to be included in this summary. You should read this entire prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including our most recent annual report on Form 10-K any subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, you should carefully consider the information provided under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in the other reports that we file with the SEC. 

 

Overview

 

Nuvve is leading the electrification of the planet, beginning with transportation. Founded on the need to store and optimize renewable energy sources, we believe that electrification will unlock the benefits of clean energy and the profound impact it will have on our society and the planet.

 

Nuvve has introduced a new model for electrification through our intelligent energy platform. Nuvve offers deep expertise and technical solutions that make electric vehicles more sophisticated, efficient, and cost-effective. Combining the world’s most advanced vehicle-to-grid, or “V2G,” technology and our ecosystem of partners, Nuvve dynamically manages power among electric vehicle, “EV,” batteries and the grid. Together, these networked batteries serve as expanded capacity to supplement shifting energy needs and contribute to a more resilient grid. When the world’s batteries are intelligently connected, everyone has an opportunity to share in the benefits of an electrified world. Nuvve is delivering new value to owners, accelerating the adoption of EVs and the world’s transition to clean energy.

 

Since its founding in 2010, Nuvve has been responsible for successful V2G projects on five continents and is deploying commercial services worldwide.

 

Technology

 

The Nuvve platform dynamically manages power to and from EVs and the grid at scale. Our intelligent V2G technology allows owners to efficiently meet the energy demands of individual vehicles and entire fleets. With Nuvve, the grid becomes more resilient through the benefits of greater networked battery capacity.

 

Nuvve’s Grid Integrated Vehicle (“GIVe”) software platform enables it to aggregate multiple EV batteries into a virtual power plant, or “VPP,” to provide bidirectional services to the electrical grid in a qualified and secure manner. VPPs can generate revenue by selling excess power to utility companies, utilizing the stored power to perform grid services, or reduce building energy peak consumption. Nuvve is capable of providing many levels of vehicle-grid integration, or “VGI,” and V2G services such as time of use optimization, or “TOU,” demand response, demand charge management and wholesale energy market participation, thereby providing revenues from grid services as well as utility bill savings behind the meter.

 

Market Opportunity and the Nuvve Solution

 

The EV industry has grown rapidly since Nuvve was founded in 2010. According to the Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) Vehicle-to-Grid: Big Opportunities, Big Challenges (March 2021), by 2040, there will be 500 million EVs on the road by 2040. In addition, countries around the world are expected to become increasingly focused on meeting climate goals, in part, by reducing the environmental effects of internal combustion engine vehicles, which account for approximately 45% of global carbon dioxide (“CO2”) emissions (source: ourworldindata.org).

 

As EV adoption grows, the associated charging infrastructure needed to support EVs has also seen a growth trend over the last few years. According to an April 2021 report from Schroders, the number of public charging points has grown from just over 600,000 at the end of 2018 to reach over 1.3 million by the end of 2020. The same report projects the annual run-rate of investment in charging points will be $80 billion over the next 20 years.

 

Additional factors propelling this shift to electrification include proposed fossil fuel bans or restrictions, transit electrification mandates, utility incentive programs and declining battery costs.

 

However, as EV adoption grows, demand for electricity as a transportation fuel may lead to congestion and overloading on transmission and local distribution grids. A significant investment is predicted to be needed to upgrade the electric grid to support this influx.

 

Simultaneously, higher penetration of renewable energy sources (such as solar and wind generation) inherently increases grid volatility. Nuvve believes that this combination of factors further drives the need for intelligent VGI and V2G capabilities to effectively regulate grid voltage and frequency on a real time basis and address other common challenges such as massive morning and afternoon grid ramping.

 

1

 

 

With V2G services capturing available grid value streams such as frequency regulation, adaptive power, smart charging, smart charging/discharging, and peak-shaving services as part of the solution, the EV fleet owner/operator can symbiotically assist in improving and assuring grid stabilization while earning revenues. These revenues can be shared with the ratepayer to save in transportation energy costs and thereby effectively lower the cost of EV ownership. V2G services can also help mitigate intermittency issues associated with renewables by (1) continuously injecting or absorbing energy to and from the grid every few seconds to help to regulate frequency; and (2) be orderly and intelligently dispatched over a larger time period to mitigate the enormous needs for capacity ramping. Perhaps most importantly, EVs represent one of the most appropriate solutions to act as dispatchable distributed energy resources during renewable-rich mid-day periods by absorbing excess energy which might otherwise be curtailed or create transmission network congestion problems.

 

Corporate History

 

Nuvve HoldCo was incorporated in Delaware on November 10, 2020 under the name “NB Merger Corp.” We were formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Newborn for the purpose of effecting the Business Combination and to serve as the publicly traded parent company of Nuvve following the Business Combination. In connection with the Business Combination, we changed our name to “Nuvve Holding Corp.” Nuvve OpCo was incorporated in Delaware law on October 15, 2010 under the name “Nuvve Corporation.” As part of the Business Combination, Nuvve OpCo merged with Merger Sub, with Nuvve OpCo surviving as our wholly owned subsidiary. Newborn was incorporated in the Cayman Islands on April 12, 2019 under the name “Newborn Acquisition Corp.” Newborn was formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization, or similar business combination with one or more businesses. As part of the Business Combination, Newborn reincorporated to Delaware by merging with and into Nuvve HoldCo, with Nuvve HoldCo surviving the merger.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 2488 Historic Decatur Road, San Diego, California 92106. Our telephone number is (619) 456-5161. Our website address is www.nuvve.com. Information contained on our website or connected thereto does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the “JOBS Act.” As an emerging growth company, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These include, but are not limited to:

 

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;

 

not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditors’ report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements;

 

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation; and

 

exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

 

Additionally, Under the JOBS Act, an emerging growth company can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We irrevocably elected to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards, and, therefore, are not subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as public companies who were not emerging growth companies.

 

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of June 30th of that fiscal year, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year (as indexed for inflation), (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in the prior three-year period, and (iv) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of equity securities of Newborn (our predecessor) in its initial public offering, or December 31, 2025.

 

Securities Offered

 

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

  

2

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Any investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Potential investors are urged to read and consider the risks and uncertainties relating to an investment in our company set forth under “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular offering, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Potential investors also should read and consider the risks and uncertainties discussed under the item “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, if any, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, as they may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future and any prospectus supplement related to a particular offering. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business and results of operations. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be seriously harmed. In that event, the market price for our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby will be used for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Any specific allocation of the net proceeds of an offering of securities to a specific purpose will be determined at the time of a particular offering and will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering. Pending the application of such proceeds, we expect to invest the proceeds in short-term, interest bearing, investment-grade marketable securities or money market obligations.

 

3

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

In the discussion that follows, we have summarized selected provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the “DGCL,” relating to our capital stock. This summary is not complete, is subject to the relevant provisions of Delaware law and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws. You should read the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws as currently in effect for provisions that may be important to you.

 

Authorized Capital Stock

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

 

As of April 14, 2022, there were 18,869,195 shares of our common stock outstanding and no shares of our preferred stock outstanding. The number of shares of common stock outstanding does not include the shares issuable under our warrants, options and restricted stock units outstanding as of April 14, 2022, as follows:

 

4,365,000 shares issuable upon exercise of the pre-merger warrants, which have an exercise price of $11.50 per whole share, are currently exercisable and expire in March 2026;

 

347,875 shares and 316,250 pre-merger warrants issuable upon exercise of the unit purchase option granted to the underwriter of Newborn’s initial public offering, which has an exercise price of $11.50 per unit of 1 1/10 shares and one pre-merger warrant, is currently exercisable and expires on February 13, 2023, and 158,125 shares issuable upon exercise of the 316,250 pre-merger warrants;

 

6,000,000 shares issuable upon exercise the warrants issued in connection with the formation of the Levo joint venture (the "Levo warrants"), which warrants have exercise prices ranging from $10.00 per share to $40.00 per share, become exercisable as described below and expire on May 17, 2031;

 

5,000,000 shares issuable upon exercise of the option embodied in the stock purchase agreement executed by us in connection with the formation of the Levo joint venture (the "Levo SPA"), which option has a purchase price of $50.00 per share, becomes exercisable as described below and expires on November 17, 2028,

 

2,738,575 shares issuable upon exercise of our outstanding stock options, which have a weighted average exercise price of approximately $9.19 per share and an average remaining life of approximately 7.80 years; and

 

350,925 shares issuable upon settlement of outstanding restricted stock units.

 

As of April 14, 2022, we also had 1,321,374 shares reserved for issuance, but not subject to outstanding awards, under our long-term incentive equity plan. In addition, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer have committed to purchase from us 134,499 shares of our common stock at a price of $14.87 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $2,000,000.

 

Common Stock

 

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters to be voted on by shareholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. There will be no cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors, with the result that the holders of more than 50% of the shares of common stock voted for the election of directors can elect all of the directors. The holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive dividends, if and when declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up, our stockholders will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining available for distribution to them after payment of liabilities and after provision is made for each class of stock, if any, having preference over the common stock. Holders of our common stock will have no conversion, preemptive or other subscription rights, and there will be no sinking fund or redemption provisions applicable to our common stock.

 

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Preferred Stock

 

Our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors the authority, without further stockholder authorization, to issue from time to time up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the terms, limitations, voting rights, relative rights and preferences and variations of each series. If we issue preferred stock, such preferred stock may have priority over our common stock with respect to dividends and other distributions, including the distribution of assets upon liquidation. Although we have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock, the issuance of shares of preferred stock, or the issuance of rights to purchase such shares, could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to the holders of our common stock, could adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of the common stock and could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change of control of the Company or an unsolicited acquisition proposal.

 

Dividends

 

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. Any future decisions regarding dividends will be made by our board of directors. We do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future but expect to retain earnings to finance the growth of our business. Our board of directors has complete discretion on whether to pay dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors the board of directors may deem relevant.

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

Provisions of the DGCL and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make it more difficult to acquire us by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise, or to remove incumbent officers and directors. These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage certain types of coercive takeover practices and takeover bids that our board of directors may consider inadequate and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover or acquisition proposals because, among other things, negotiation of these proposals could result in improved terms for our stockholders.

 

Staggered Board. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our board shall be divided into three classes with only one class of directors being elected in each year and each class serving a three-year term. The number of directors in each class shall be as nearly equal as possible. As a result, in most circumstances, a person can gain control of our board of directors only by successfully engaging in a proxy contest at two or more annual or special meetings.

 

Because the board is classified, directors may be removed only for cause. Further, our certificate of incorporation provides for the removal of directors for cause only by the affirmative vote of at least 66⅔% of the total voting power of all the then outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class (other than those directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock, who shall be removed pursuant to the terms of such Preferred Stock).

 

Authorized but Unissued Shares. Our authorized but unissued common stock and preferred stock will be available for future issuances without stockholder approval and could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

Appointment of directors. Our certificate of incorporation provides that newly created directorships (including those created by the board) or any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled by a majority vote of the remaining directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. The exercise of this authority may prevent stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on the board.

 

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Special Meeting of Stockholders. Our bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called only at the direction of our board of directors, our Chairman of the Board, or our Chief Executive Officer. The existence of this provision could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors.

 

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations. Our bylaws provide that stockholders of record seeking to bring business before a special meeting of stockholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a special meeting of stockholders, must provide timely notice of their intent in writing. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice will need to be received by the secretary at our principal executive offices not later than the 60th day nor earlier than 90th day prior to the meeting. Pursuant to Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act, proposals seeking inclusion in our annual proxy statement must comply with the notice periods contained therein. Our bylaws also specify certain requirements as to the form and content of a stockholders’ meeting. These provisions may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before a meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at a meeting of stockholders.

 

Stockholder action by written consent. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provides that any action required or permitted to be a taken by stockholders must be taken at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and may not be effected by written consent unless such action is recommended or approved by all members of the board then in office.

 

Supermajority voting requirements. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws require the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66⅔% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the voting stock, voting together as a single class, to amend certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation or to amend our bylaws, which may inhibit the ability of an acquiror to effect such amendments to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt.

 

Exclusive forum selection. Our certificate of incorporation requires that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, in the event that the Chancery Court does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware or other state courts of the State of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of we, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer, employee or agent of we to we or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws (as either may be amended from time to time), (iv) any action or proceeding to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws (including any right, obligation, or remedy thereunder) or (v) any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine. These provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act, the Securities Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the fullest extent permitted by law, claims made under the Securities Act must be brought in federal district court. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

 

The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with claims arising under federal securities laws, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in or amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable. If that were the case, because stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, it would allow stockholders to bring claims for breach of these provisions in any appropriate forum.

 

Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.

 

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Section 203 of the DGCL. We have not opted out of Section 203 of the DGCL under our certificate of incorporation. As a result, pursuant to Section 203 of the DGCL, we are prohibited from engaging in any business combination with any stockholder for a period of three years following the time that such stockholder, or the “interested stockholder,” came to own at least 15% of the outstanding voting stock, or the “acquisition,” except if:

 

the board of directors approved the acquisition prior to its consummation;

 

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the outstanding voting stock upon consummation of the acquisition; or

 

the Business Combination is approved by the board of directors, and by a 2/3 majority vote of the other stockholders in a meeting.

 

Generally, a “business combination” includes any merger, consolidation, asset or stock sale or certain other transactions resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with that person’s affiliates and associates, owns, or within the previous three years owned, 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock.

 

Under certain circumstances, declining to opt out of Section 203 of the DGCL will make it more difficult for a person who would be an “interested stockholder” to effect various business combinations with us for a three-year period. This may encourage companies interested in acquiring us to negotiate in advance with our board of directors because the stockholder approval requirement would be avoided if the board approves the acquisition which results in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. This may also have the effect of preventing changes in our board of directors and may make it more difficult to accomplish transactions which stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

 

Limitation on Directors’ Liability and Indemnification

 

The DGCL authorizes corporations to limit or eliminate, subject to certain conditions, the personal liability of directors to corporations and their stockholders for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duties. Our certificate of incorporation limits the liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.

 

We have director and officer liability insurance to cover liabilities our directors and officers may incur in connection with their services to the combined company, including matters arising under the Securities Act. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws also provide that we will indemnify our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. In addition, we have entered into customary indemnification agreements with each of its officers and directors.

 

There is no pending litigation or proceeding involving any of our directors, officers, employees or agents in which indemnification will be required or permitted. We are not aware of any threatened litigation or proceedings that may result in a claim for such indemnification.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, executive officers or persons controlling us, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Listing

 

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NVVE.”

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company located at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities or any other security offered hereby. Warrants may be issued in one or more series and may be issued independently or together with other securities and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. We may issue the warrants directly or under warrant agreements to be entered into between a warrant agent and us. Any warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.

 

The following outlines some of the general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may issue. A prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of any warrants offered from time to time, and may supplement or change the terms outlined below. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, a form of the warrant or form of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate that sets forth the terms of the particular warrants we are offering. The summary of such terms contained in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement is qualified in its entirety by reference to such warrant or warrant agreement and warrant certificate. We urge you to read the warrant or warrant agreement and warrant certificate and the additional description of the terms of the warrants included in the prospectus supplement.

 

General

 

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

 

the title of the warrants;

 

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

 

the aggregate number of the warrants;

 

the designation and terms of the common stock, preferred stock or other class of security that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities that the warrants are issued with and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

the number of shares and price of common stock or preferred stock, or the designation and number or amount of debt or other securities, that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant;

 

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants commence and expire;

 

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants; and

 

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

 

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In the case of warrants issued under a warrant agreement, we and the warrant agent generally may amend or supplement the warrant agreement for a series of warrants without the consent of the holders of the warrants issued thereunder to effect changes that are not inconsistent with the provisions of the warrants and that do not materially and adversely affect the interests of the holders of the warrants.

 

Holders may exercise warrants as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants being offered. In general, holders may exercise warrants at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the expiration time, unexercised warrants will be void.

 

Until a holder exercises the warrants to purchase any securities underlying the warrants, the holder will not have any rights as a holder of the underlying securities by virtue of ownership of warrants.

 

Outstanding Warrants

 

As of April 14, 2022, we have six series of warrants outstanding, the pre-merger warrants and five series of Levo warrants.

 

Pre-Merger Warrants

 

Each pre-merger warrant entitles the holder thereof to purchase one-half (1/2) of one share of our common stock at a price of $11.50 per whole share. We will not issue fractional shares. As a result, a warrant holder must exercise its warrants in multiples of two, at a price of $11.50 per whole share, subject to adjustment, to validly exercise the warrants. The warrants became exercisable upon the completion of the Business Combination and will expire five years after the consummation of the Business Combination, or March 19, 2026. However, except as set forth below, no warrants will be exercisable for cash unless we have an effective and current registration statement covering the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants and a current prospectus relating to such common stock. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if a registration statement covering the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants is not effective within 90 days from the consummation of the Business Combination, warrant holders may, until such time as there is an effective registration statement and during any period when we shall have failed to maintain an effective registration statement, exercise the warrants on a cashless basis pursuant to the exemption from registration provided by Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act, provided that such exemption is available. If an exemption from registration is not available, holders will not be able to exercise their warrants on a cashless basis. 

 

We may redeem the outstanding pre-merger warrants (excluding the private warrants sold to NeoGenesis Holding Co. Ltd., Newborn’s sponsor, in connection with the consummation of Newborn’s initial public offering), in whole and not in part, at a price of $0.01 per warrant:

 

at any time while the warrants are exercisable,

 

upon a minimum of 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption,

 

if, and only if, the last sales price of our common stock equals or exceeds $16.50 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending three business days before we send the notice of redemption, and

 

if, and only if, there is a current registration statement in effect with respect to our common stock underlying the warrants at the time of redemption and for the entire 30-day trading period referred to above and continuing each day thereafter until the date of redemption.

 

If the foregoing conditions are satisfied and we issue a notice of redemption, each pre-merger warrant holder can exercise his, her or its warrant prior to the scheduled redemption date. However, the price of our common stock may fall below the $16.50 trigger price as well as the $11.50 warrant exercise price per whole share after the redemption notice is issued and not limit our ability to complete the redemption.

 

If we call the warrants for redemption as described above, our management will have the option to require all pre-merger warrant holders that wish to exercise their warrants to do so on a “cashless basis.” In such event, each warrant holder would pay the exercise price by surrendering the whole warrant for that number of shares of common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of common stock underlying the warrants, multiplied by the difference between the exercise price of the warrants and the “fair market value” (as defined below) by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” shall mean the average reported last sale price of our common stock for the 20 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the warrant holders. Whether we will exercise our option to require all warrant holders to exercise their warrants on a “cashless basis” will depend on a variety of factors including the price of our common stock at the time the warrants are called for redemption, our cash needs at such time and concerns regarding dilutive share issuances.

 

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The exercise price and number of shares of common stock issuable on exercise of the pre-merger warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances including in the event of a share capitalizations, extraordinary dividend or our recapitalization, reorganization, merger or consolidation. However, the warrants will not be adjusted for issuances of common stock at a price below their respective exercise prices.

 

The pre-merger warrants may be exercised upon surrender of the warrant certificate on or prior to the expiration date at the offices of the warrant agent, with the exercise form on the reverse side of the warrant certificate completed and executed as indicated, accompanied by full payment of the exercise price, by certified or official bank check payable to us, for the number of warrants being exercised. The warrant holders do not have the rights or privileges of holders of our common stock or any voting rights until they exercise their warrants and receive common stock. After the issuance of our common stock upon exercise of the warrants, each holder will be entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by stockholders.

 

Except as described above, no pre-merger warrants will be exercisable and we will not be obligated to issue common stock unless at the time a holder seeks to exercise such warrant, a prospectus relating to the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants is current and the shares of common stock have been registered or qualified or deemed to be exempt under the securities laws of the state of residence of the holder of the warrants. Under the terms of the pre-merger warrant agreement, we have agreed to use its best efforts to meet these conditions and to maintain a current prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants until the expiration of such warrants. However, we cannot assure you that it will be able to do so and, if we do not maintain a current prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants, holders will be unable to exercise their warrants and we will not be required to settle any such warrant exercise. If the prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon the exercise of the warrants is not current or if the common stock is not qualified or exempt from qualification in the jurisdictions in which the holders of the warrants reside, we will not be required to net cash settle or cash settle the warrant exercise, the warrants may have no value, the market for the warrants may be limited and the warrants may expire worthless.

 

Holders of the pre-merger warrants may elect to be subject to a restriction on the exercise of their warrants such that an electing warrant holder (and his, her or its affiliates) would not be able to exercise their warrants to the extent that, after giving effect to such exercise, such holder (and his, her or its affiliates) would beneficially own in excess of 9.99% of our Common Stock issued and outstanding. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any person who acquires a warrant with the purpose or effect of changing or influencing the control of our company, or in connection with or as a participant in any transaction having such purpose or effect, immediately upon such acquisition will be deemed to be the beneficial owner of the underlying common stock and not be able to take advantage of this provision.

 

No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of the pre-merger warrants. If, upon exercise of the warrants, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share (as a result of a subsequent share capitalizations payable in shares of common stock, or by a split up of the common stock or other similar event), we will, upon exercise, round up or down to the nearest whole number the number of shares of common stock to be issued to the warrant holder.

 

The pre-merger warrants are issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between us and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval, by written consent or vote, of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding warrants in order to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders.

  

The warrant agent and registrar for our pre-merger warrants is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company located at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.

 

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Our pre-merger warrants are traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NVVEW.”

  

Levo Warrants

 

The Levo warrants were issued in five separate series, as follows:

 

Series B Warrants to purchase 2,000,000 shares of our common stock, in the aggregate, at an exercise price of $10.00 per share, which are fully vested upon issuance;

 

Series C Warrants to purchase 1,000,000 shares of our common stock, in the aggregate, at an exercise price of $15.00 per share, which are vested as to 50% of the shares upon issuance and vest as to the remaining 50% when Levo has entered into contracts with third parties for $125 million in aggregate capital expenditures;

 

Series D Warrants to purchase 1,000,000 shares of our common stock, in the aggregate, at an exercise price of $20.00 per share, which are vested as to 50% of the shares upon issuance and vest as to the remaining 50% when Levo has entered into contracts with third parties for $250 million in aggregate capital expenditures;

 

Series E Warrants to purchase 1,000,000 shares of our common stock, in the aggregate, at an exercise price of $30.00 per share, which are vested as to 50% of the shares upon issuance and vest as to the remaining 50% when Levo has entered into contracts with third parties for $375 million in aggregate capital expenditures; and

 

Series F Warrants to purchase 1,000,000 shares of our common stock, in the aggregate, at an exercise price of $40.00 per share, which are vested as to 50% of the shares upon issuance and vest as to the remaining 50% when Levo has entered into contracts with third parties for $500 million in aggregate capital expenditures.

 

Subject to the terms of the Levo warrants, a warrant shall be exercisable, at the election of the holder, either in full or from time to time in part during the period commencing on the 180th day after the applicable vesting date and until 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on May 17, 2031. The Levo warrants may be exercised for cash or on a cashless basis. We will not be required to net cash settle the Levo warrants under any circumstances. In order to exercise all or any of the Levo warrants, a holder must deliver to us (i) the warrants being exercised, (ii) the form of election to exercise provided therein duly filled in and signed and on which the holder may elect to have the exercise of warrants completed on a cashless basis, and (iii) if the holder does not elect to have the exercise of the warrants completed on a cashless basis, payment in full, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to a bank account or accounts to be designated by us, of the exercise for each whole share as to which the warrant is exercised.

 

If a holder elects to complete an exercise on a cashless basis, the Levo warrants will be converted into shares of common stock pursuant to a cashless exercise, after which we will issue to the holder a number of the shares equal to the result obtained by (i) subtracting the exercise price from the market value on the day immediately preceding the date on which the holder delivers the applicable exercise notice, (ii) dividing the result by such market value, and (iii) multiplying the difference by the number of shares of common stock as to which the Levo warrants are then being exercised. The market value for this purposes is the average VWAP during a 10 consecutive trading day period ending on the trading day immediately prior to the date of determination.

 

If a holder elects to partially exercise a Levo warrant, the number of shares deliverable upon such partial exercise must be not less than 10,000 shares.

 

In the event of a Change of Control (as defined in the Levo warrants) in which we are not the surviving entity (or if we are the surviving entity, but are a subsidiary of a new parent entity), (i) we shall deliver or to cause to be delivered to the holder, in exchange for its outstanding Levo warrants, one or more warrants in the surviving entity or new parent entity, as applicable, that has the same rights, preferences and privileges as the Levo warrants, subject to appropriate adjustments to be made to the number of shares underlying such warrants and the applicable exercise price to reflect any exchange ratio or similar construct applicable in connection with such Change of Control and (ii) notwithstanding any other provision of the Levo warrants, all unvested Levo warrants shall vest and become immediately exercisable immediately prior to the consummation of such Change of Control transaction.

 

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Levo warrants may not be exercised by, or securities issued to, any holder unless the issuance of the common stock is registered under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements thereunder is available, nor may Levo warrants be exercised by, or securities issued to, any holder in any state in which such exercise or issuance would be unlawful.

 

The exercise price and number of shares issuable upon exercise of the Levo warrants are subject to adjustment for changes in our capital stock, including stock splits, stock combinations, stock dividends, reclassifications, distributions of purchase rights and distributions of assets. If we complete a business combination, the warrants shall be converted into the right to acquire the property they would have received if the warrants were exercised prior to such business combination.

 

We shall not be required to issue fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares on the exercise of Levo warrants. If any fraction of a share would otherwise be issuable on the exercise of any Levo warrants (or specified portion thereof), we shall issue one additional whole share in lieu of such fraction.

 

We shall maintain a register for registering the record ownership of the Levo warrants by the holders and transfers and exchanges of the warrants. Each Levo warrant will be registered in the name of the holder thereof or its nominee.

 

The Levo warrants are not listed on any exchange or traded in any over-the-counter market.

  

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may offer any combination of senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities. We may issue the debt securities under one or more indentures or without the use of an indenture to the extent such issuance without an indenture is exempt under the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. If we issue the debt securities under one or more indentures, the senior debt securities will be issued under one form of indenture and the subordinated debt securities will be issued under another form of indenture, in each case, between us, as issuer, and the trustee or trustees identified in a prospectus supplement. The form for each type of indenture is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Further information regarding the trustee or trustees may be provided in the prospectus supplement.

 

The following outlines some of the general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may issue. A prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of any debt securities offered from time to time, and may supplement or change the terms outlined below. If we issue the debt securities under an indenture, we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, a form of the indenture supplement that sets forth the terms of the particular debt securities we are offering. If we issue the debt securities without an indenture, we will so file or incorporate by reference a form of the instrument evidencing the debt securities that sets forth such terms. The summary of such debt securities contained in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement is qualified in its entirety by reference to the indentures and the applicable indenture supplement, or to the other applicable instrument evidencing the debt securities. We urge you to read the indentures and the applicable indenture supplement, or the other applicable instrument evidencing the debt securities, and the additional description of the debt securities in the prospectus supplement.

 

General

 

Within the total dollar amount of this shelf registration statement, we may issue an unlimited principal amount of debt securities in separate series. We may specify a maximum aggregate principal amount for the debt securities of any series. However, the indentures, or other applicable instruments, might not limit the amount of other debt that we may incur or whether that debt is senior to the debt securities offered by this prospectus, and might not contain financial or similar restrictive covenants. The indentures, or other applicable instruments, might not contain any provision to protect holders of debt securities against a sudden or dramatic decline in our ability to pay our debt.

 

Senior debt securities will be unsubordinated obligations and will rank equal with all our other unsubordinated debt. Subordinated debt securities will be paid only if all payments due under our senior indebtedness, including any outstanding senior debt securities, have been made.

 

The prospectus supplement will describe the debt securities and the price or prices at which we will offer the debt securities. The description also will include:

 

the title and form of the debt securities;

 

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities or the series of which they are a part;

 

the date or dates on which we must repay the principal, the maturity date and the principal amount due at maturity and whether the securities will be offered at a price such that they will be deemed an “original issue discount”;

 

the person to whom any interest on a debt security of the series will be paid;

 

the rate or rates at which the debt securities will bear interest;

 

if any, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, and the dates on which we must pay interest;

 

the place or places where we must pay the principal and any premium or interest on the debt securities;

 

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the terms and conditions on which we may redeem any debt security, if at all;

 

any obligation to redeem or purchase any debt securities, and the terms and conditions on which we must do so;

 

the denominations in which we may issue the debt securities;

 

the currency in which we will pay the principal of and any premium or interest on the debt securities and whether we may pay in property other than cash, including our securities;

 

the principal amount of the debt securities that we will pay upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity;

 

whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a United States person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;

 

if applicable, that the debt securities are defeasible and the terms of such defeasance;

 

if applicable, the terms of any right to convert debt securities into, or exchange debt securities for, common stock, preferred stock. other debt securities and/or other securities or property;

 

whether we will issue the debt securities in the form of one or more global securities and, if so, the respective depositaries for the global securities and the terms of the global securities;

 

the subordination provisions that will apply to any subordinated debt securities;

 

the events of default applicable to the debt securities and the rights of the trustee, if applicable, or the holders to declare the principal amount of any of the debt securities due and payable; and

 

the covenants that will apply to the debt securities.

 

We may sell the debt securities at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount. We will describe U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any, applicable to debt securities sold at an original issue discount in the prospectus supplement. An “original issue discount security” is any debt security sold for less than its face value, and which provides that the holder cannot receive the full face value if maturity is accelerated. The prospectus supplement relating to any original issue discount securities will describe the particular provisions relating to acceleration of the maturity upon the occurrence of an event of default. In addition, we will describe U.S. federal income tax or other considerations applicable to any debt securities that are denominated in a currency or unit other than U.S. dollars in the prospectus supplement. If we issue debt securities at a discount from their stated principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the aggregate offering price of the offered securities issued under this prospectus, we will include only the offering price of the debt securities and not the principal amount of the debt securities.

 

The prospectus supplement will describe, if applicable, the terms on which you may convert debt securities into or exchange them for common stock, preferred stock, other debt securities and/or other securities or property. The conversion or exchange may be mandatory or may be at our option or at your option. The prospectus supplement will describe how the number of shares of preferred stock and common stock or amount of debt securities or other securities or property to be received upon conversion or exchange would be calculated.

 

The Indentures

 

The following outlines some of the general terms and provisions of the indentures for senior debt securities and subordinated debt securities issued under the indentures. Forms of the indentures are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary of the indentures contained in this prospectus is qualified in its entirety by reference to such forms, which we urge you to read in full.

 

14

 

 

Subordinated Debt Securities

 

The indebtedness underlying any subordinated debt securities will be payable only if all payments due under our senior indebtedness, as defined in the applicable indenture and any indenture supplement, including any outstanding senior debt securities, have been made. If we distribute our assets to creditors upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization or in bankruptcy, insolvency, receivership or similar proceedings, we must first pay all amounts due or to become due on all senior indebtedness before we pay the principal of, or any premium or interest on, the subordinated debt securities. In the event the subordinated debt securities are accelerated because of an event of default, we may not make any payment on the subordinated debt securities until we have paid all senior indebtedness or the acceleration is rescinded. If the payment of subordinated debt securities accelerates because of an event of default, we must promptly notify holders of senior indebtedness of the acceleration.

 

If we experience a bankruptcy, dissolution or reorganization, holders of senior indebtedness may receive more, ratably, and holders of subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than our other creditors. The indenture for subordinated debt securities may not limit our ability to incur additional senior indebtedness.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue debt securities only in fully registered form, without coupons, and only in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples thereof, unless the prospectus supplement provides otherwise. The holder of a debt security may elect, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities, to exchange them for other debt securities of the same series of any authorized denomination and of similar terms and aggregate principal amount.

 

Holders of debt securities may present them for exchange as provided above or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer duly executed, at the office of the transfer agent we designate for that purpose. We will not impose a service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange of debt securities, but we may require a payment sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with the transfer or exchange. We will name the transfer agent in the prospectus supplement. We may designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, but we must maintain a transfer agent in each place where we will make payment on debt securities.

 

If we redeem the debt securities, we will not be required to issue, register the transfer of or exchange any debt security during a specified period prior to mailing a notice of redemption. We are not required to register the transfer of or exchange of any debt security selected for redemption, except the unredeemed portion of the debt security being redeemed.

 

Global Securities

 

The debt securities may be represented, in whole or in part, by one or more global securities that will have an aggregate principal amount equal to that of all debt securities of that series. Each global security will be registered in the name of a depositary identified in the prospectus supplement. We will deposit the global security with the depositary or a custodian, and the global security will bear a legend regarding the restrictions on exchanges and registration of transfer.

 

No global security may be exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities registered, and no transfer of a global security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name of any person other than the depositary or any nominee or successor of the depositary unless:

 

the depositary is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary; or

 

the depositary is no longer in good standing under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or “Exchange Act,” or other applicable statute or regulation.

 

15

 

 

The depositary will determine how all securities issued in exchange for a global security will be registered.

 

As long as the depositary or its nominee is the registered holder of a global security, we will consider the depositary or the nominee to be the sole owner and holder of the global security and the underlying debt securities. Except as stated above, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the global security or any debt security registered in their names, will not receive physical delivery of certificated debt securities and will not be considered to be the owners or holders of the global security or underlying debt securities. We will make all payments of principal, premium and interest on a global security to the depositary or its nominee. The laws of some jurisdictions require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. These laws may prevent you from transferring your beneficial interests in a global security.

 

Only institutions that have accounts with the depositary or its nominee and persons that hold beneficial interests through the depositary or its nominee may own beneficial interests in a global security. The depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the respective principal amounts of debt securities represented by the global security to the accounts of its participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown only on, and the transfer of those ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary or any such participant.

 

The policies and procedures of the depositary may govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to beneficial interests in a global security. We and the trustee will assume no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the depositary’s or any participant’s records relating to, or for payments made on account of, beneficial interests in a global security.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

We will pay principal and any premium or interest on a debt security to the person in whose name the debt security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest.

 

We will pay principal and any premium or interest on the debt securities at the office of our designated paying agent. Unless the prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the corporate trust office of the trustee will be the paying agent for the debt securities.

 

Any other paying agents we designate for the debt securities of a particular series will be named in the prospectus supplement. We may designate additional paying agents, rescind the designation of any paying agent or approve a change in the office through which any paying agent acts, but we must maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities.

 

The paying agent will return to us all money we pay to it for the payment of the principal, premium or interest on any debt security that remains unclaimed for a specified period. Thereafter, the holder may look only to us for payment, as an unsecured general creditor.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

 

Under the terms of the indentures, so long as any securities remain outstanding, we may not consolidate or enter into a share exchange with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or sell, convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, unless:

 

the successor assumes our obligations under the debt securities and the indentures; and

 

we meet the other conditions described in the indentures.

 

Events of Default

 

Each of the following will constitute an event of default under each indenture:

 

failure to pay any interest on any debt security when due, for more than a specified number of days past the due date;

 

16

 

 

failure to pay any principal or deposit any sinking fund payment when due;

 

failure to perform any covenant or agreement in the indenture that continues for a specified number of days after written notice has been given by the trustee or the holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series;

 

events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization; and

 

any other event of default specified in the prospectus supplement.

 

If an event of default occurs and continues, both the trustee and holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of that series may declare the principal amount of the debt securities of that series to be immediately due and payable. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, have been cured or waived.

 

Except for its duties in case of an event of default, the trustee will not be obligated to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any of the holders, unless the holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. If they provide this indemnification and subject to conditions specified in the applicable indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

 

No holder of a debt security of any series may institute any proceeding with respect to the indentures, or for the appointment of a receiver or a trustee, or for any other remedy, unless:

 

the holder has previously given the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

the holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of that series have made a written request upon the trustee, and have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee, to institute the proceeding;

 

the trustee has failed to institute the proceeding for a specified period of time after its receipt of the notification; and

 

the trustee has not received a direction inconsistent with the request within a specified number of days from the holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of that series.

 

Modification and Waiver

 

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series.

 

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of notes may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, we and the trustee may only make the following changes with the consent of the holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

extending the fixed maturity of the series of notes;

 

17

 

 

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption, of any debt securities; or

 

reducing the percentage of debt securities the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may waive any past default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of that series, except a default in the payment of principal, premium or interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision of the indenture that cannot be amended without each holder’s consent.

 

Except in limited circumstances, we may set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the holders of outstanding debt securities of any series entitled to give or take any direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action under the indentures. In limited circumstances, the trustee may set a record date. To be effective, the action must be taken by holders of the requisite principal amount of such debt securities within a specified period following the record date.

 

Defeasance

 

To the extent stated in the prospectus supplement, we may elect to apply the provisions in the indentures relating to defeasance and discharge of indebtedness, or to defeasance of restrictive covenants, to the debt securities of any series. The indentures provide that, upon satisfaction of the requirements described below, we may terminate all of our obligations under the debt securities of any series and the applicable indenture, known as legal defeasance, other than our obligation:

 

to maintain a registrar and paying agents and hold monies for payment in trust;

 

to register the transfer or exchange of the notes; and

 

to replace mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen notes.

 

In addition, we may terminate our obligation to comply with any restrictive covenants under the debt securities of any series or the applicable indenture, known as covenant defeasance.

 

We may exercise our legal defeasance option even if we have previously exercised our covenant defeasance option. If we exercise either defeasance option, payment of the notes may not be accelerated because of the occurrence of events of default.

 

To exercise either defeasance option as to debt securities of any series, we must irrevocably deposit in trust with the trustee money and/or obligations backed by the full faith and credit of the United States that will provide money in an amount sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and each installment of interest on the debt securities. We may only establish this trust if, among other things:

 

no event of default shall have occurred or be continuing;

 

in the case of legal defeasance, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or there has been a change in law, which in the opinion of our counsel, provides that holders of the debt securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

 

in the case of covenant defeasance, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred; and

 

we satisfy other customary conditions precedent described in the applicable indenture.

 

Title

 

We may treat the person in whose name a debt security is registered as the absolute owner, whether or not such debt security may be overdue, for the purpose of making payment and for all other purposes.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities offered hereby in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security.

 

The units may be, but are not required to be, issued under unit agreements to be entered into between us and a unit agent, as detailed in the prospectus supplement relating to the units being offered. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, a form of the unit agreement and unit certificate, if any, that sets forth the terms of the particular units we are offering. The summary of such terms contained in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement is qualified in its entirety by reference to such unit agreement and unit certificate. We urge you to read the unit agreement and unit certificate, if any, and the additional description of the terms of the units included in the prospectus supplement.

 

The prospectus supplement will describe the units and the price or prices at which we will offer the units. The description will include:

 

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be held or transferred separately;

 

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;

 

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units;

 

a discussion of material federal income tax considerations, if applicable; and

 

whether the units if issued as a separate security will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

The descriptions of the units in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement are summaries of the material provisions of the applicable agreements.

 

19

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION OF SECURITIES

 

We may sell or issue the securities offered by this prospectus from time to time in any one or more of the following ways:

 

through underwriters or dealers;

 

through agents;

 

directly to purchasers or a single purchaser; or

 

through a combination of any of these methods.

 

The manner in which we may sell some or all of the securities covered by this prospectus includes, without limitation, through:

 

a rights offering;

 

exercises of warrants or other rights;

 

an “at the market” offering, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act,” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;

 

a block trade in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell as agent, but may position or resell a portion of the block, as principal, in order to facilitate the transaction;

 

purchases by a broker-dealer, as principal, and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;

 

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker solicits purchasers; and

 

privately negotiated transactions.

 

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

at varying prices determined at the time of sale; or

 

at negotiated prices.

 

For each offering of securities hereunder, we will describe the method of distribution of such securities, among other things, in a prospectus supplement. A prospectus supplement will set forth the terms of the offering of the securities, including:

 

the name or names of any agents or underwriters;

 

the purchase price of the securities being offered and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

20

 

 

any initial public offering price;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchanges or markets on which such securities may be listed.

 

Sales Through Underwriters or Dealers

 

If underwriters are used in the sale of the securities, the securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions. The securities may be either offered to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions precedent and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities if any are purchased. Any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.

 

If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale. We may negotiate and pay dealers’ commissions, discounts or concessions for their services. Any such dealer may be deemed to be an underwriter, as such term is defined in the Securities Act, of our securities so offered and sold.

 

Direct Sales and Sales Through Agents

 

We may sell the securities directly, in which case no underwriters or agents would be involved, or we may sell the securities through agents designated by us from time to time. If agents are used in the sale of the securities, the agent will not purchase any securities for its own account, but will arrange for the sale of the securities. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. We may negotiate and pay agent’s fees or commissions for their services. If the securities are sold directly by us, we may sell the securities to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, with respect to any sale of those securities.

 

Delayed Delivery Contracts

 

We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by institutional investors, such as commercial banks and investment companies, to purchase the securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The conditions to these contracts and the commissions payable for solicitation of the contracts will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

At-the-Market Offerings

 

Underwriters, dealers or agents could make sales in an “at-the-market” offering, directly on the Nasdaq Capital Market, the existing trading market for our common stock and pre-merger warrants, or such other exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities trade, or to or through a market maker other than on an exchange.

 

Rights Offerings

 

We may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

 

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Compensation

 

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, all discounts, commissions or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will be disclosed in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Indemnification

 

Any underwriters and agents may be entitled to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution with respect to payments which the agents or underwriters may be required to make in respect of their liabilities.

 

Stabilization Activities

 

During and after an offering through underwriters, the underwriters may purchase and sell the securities in the open market. These transactions may include over allotment and stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover syndicate short positions created in connection with the offering. The underwriters may also impose a penalty bid, whereby selling concessions allowed to syndicate members or other broker-dealers for the offered securities sold for their account may be reclaimed by the syndicate if such offered securities are repurchased by the syndicate in stabilizing or covering transactions. These activities may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the offered securities, which may be higher than the price that might otherwise prevail in the open market. If commenced, these activities may be discontinued at any time.

 

Passive Market Making

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M.

 

Trading Markets

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, securities offered under this prospectus will be a new issue and, other than the common stock and pre-merger warrants, which are quoted on the Nasdaq Capital Market, will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any other class or series of securities on an exchange, and in the case of the common stock, on any additional exchange, but, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we shall not be obligated to do so. Any underwriters to whom securities are sold for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange or a foreign securities exchange. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of the securities.

 

Other Matters

 

Any underwriters, dealers and agents, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

 

We will bear all costs, expenses and fees associated with the registration of the securities offered.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The legality of the common stock offered by this prospectus has been passed upon by Graubard Miller, New York, New York.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Nuvve Holding Corp. incorporated in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 by reference from Nuvve Holding Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, have been audited by Moss Adams LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nuvve Holding Corp.

 

 

$100,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Warrants

Debt Securities

Units

 

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

_______, 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus Subject to Completion Dated April 22, 2022

 

$25,000,000

 

 

 

Nuvve Holding Corp.

Common Stock

 

We intend to enter into an At The Market Offering Agreement, or the “Sales Agreement,” with Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC, or “Craig-Hallum,” relating to shares of our common stock that may be offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell an aggregate of up to $25,000,000 of common stock from time to time through Craig-Hallum, as sales agent. Under the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may also sell shares to Craig-Hallum as principal for its own account.

 

Craig-Hallum is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock but will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, as our agent and subject to the terms of the Sales Agreement, to sell the shares offered by this prospectus. Sales of the shares, if any, may be made by any means permitted by law and deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act,” including sales made directly on the Capital Market of The Nasdaq Stock Market, or “Nasdaq,” at market prices, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, and/or any other method permitted by law and such other sales as may be agreed upon by Craig-Hallum and us. If we and Craig-Hallum agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of our common stock into the Nasdaq Capital Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act.

 

Craig-Hallum will receive from us a commission of 3.0% based on the gross sales price per share for any shares sold through it as agent under the Sales Agreement. A different amount of compensation may be paid by us when Craig-Hallum purchases shares as principal at a price agreed to by us and Craig-Hallum. We have also agreed to reimburse certain expenses of Craig-Hallum in connection with the Sales Agreement. The net proceeds that we receive from sales of our common stock will depend on the number of shares actually sold and the offering price for such shares, but will not exceed $25,000,000 in the aggregate. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 16 of this prospectus. In connection with the sale of shares of our common stock on our behalf, Craig-Hallum may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Craig-Hallum may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

 

Our common stock is listed for trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “NVVE.” On April 21, 2022, the closing price of our common stock was $7.15.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” on page 5 in this prospectus and elsewhere in any supplements for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Craig-Hallum

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is _______, 2022.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS ii
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 1
THE OFFERING 3
RISK FACTORS 5
NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 8
USE OF PROCEEDS 10
DILUTION 11
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK 12
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 16
LEGAL MATTERS 18
EXPERTS 18
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 18
INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE 18

 

i

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the “SEC,” using a “shelf” registration process. This prospectus relates to the offering by us of $25,000,000 shares of our common stock.

 

As permitted under the rules of the SEC, this prospectus incorporates important business information about us that is contained in documents that we file with the SEC but that are not included in or delivered with this prospectus. This prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein include important information about us and our common stock, and other information you should know before investing. You should read this prospectus, together with the additional information in “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information and, if provided, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us. This prospectus shall not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy offered securities in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offering or solicitation. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits.

 

You should not assume the information appearing in this prospectus supplement or the base prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of the respective documents. You should not assume the information contained in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the base prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the respective dates of those documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since such date.

 

We are not making any representation to any purchaser regarding the legality of an investment by such purchaser under any legal investment or similar laws or regulations. You should not consider any information in this prospectus to be legal, business or tax advice. You should consult your own attorney, business advisor and tax advisor for legal, business and tax advice regarding an investment in our securities.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, in this prospectus, “Nuvve” and the “Company” and “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Nuvve OpCo and its subsidiaries, for periods prior to the Business Combination, and to Nuvve HoldCo and its subsidiaries, including Nuvve OpCo, for periods after the Business Combination. In addition:

 

Business Combination” refers to the business combination between Newborn, Nuvve OpCo and Nuvve Holdco as described below.

 

Newborn” refers to Newborn Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands company, which is Nuvve Holding Corp.’s predecessor.

 

Nuvve OpCo” refers to Nuvve Corporation, a Delaware corporation acquired by us in the Business Combination.

 

Nuvve HoldCo” refers to Nuvve Holding Corp., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Nuvve Corporation after the Business Combination.

 

pre-merger warrants” refers to the warrants issued pursuant to the warrant agreement, dated as of February 13, 2010 and amended as of March 19, 2021, between us and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent (“Warrant Agreement”), which were assumed by us in the Business Combination.

 

On March 19, 2021, Nuvve HoldCo consummated the Business Combination contemplated by that certain merger agreement, dated as of November 11, 2020 and amended as of February 20, 2021, or the “Merger Agreement,” by and among Newborn, Nuvve OpCo, Nuvve HoldCo, Nuvve Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of Nuvve HoldCo, or “Merger Sub,” and Ted Smith, as the representative of the Nuvve stockholders. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the Business Combination was effected through (i) the reincorporation of Newborn by the merger of Newborn with and into Nuvve HoldCo, with Nuvve HoldCo surviving as the publicly traded entity, or the “Reincorporation Merger,” and (ii) immediately after the Reincorporation Merger, the merger of Merger Sub with and into Nuvve OpCo, with Nuvve OpCo surviving as the wholly-owned subsidiary of Nuvve HoldCo, or the “Acquisition Merger.” On the closing date of the Business Combination, Nuvve HoldCo changed its name to “Nuvve Holding Corp.”

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The following is a summary of some of the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus which we believe to be important. We have selected highlights of material aspects of our business to be included in this summary. You should read this entire prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including our most recent annual report on Form 10-K any subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, you should carefully consider the information provided under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in the other reports that we file with the SEC. 

 

Overview

 

Nuvve is leading the electrification of the planet, beginning with transportation. Founded on the need to store and optimize renewable energy sources, we believe that electrification will unlock the benefits of clean energy and the profound impact it will have on our society and the planet.

 

Nuvve has introduced a new model for electrification through our intelligent energy platform. Nuvve offers deep expertise and technical solutions that make electric vehicles more sophisticated, efficient, and cost-effective. Combining the world’s most advanced vehicle-to-grid, or “V2G,” technology and our ecosystem of partners, Nuvve dynamically manages power among electric vehicle, “EV,” batteries and the grid. Together, these networked batteries serve as expanded capacity to supplement shifting energy needs and contribute to a more resilient grid. When the world’s batteries are intelligently connected, everyone has an opportunity to share in the benefits of an electrified world. Nuvve is delivering new value to owners, accelerating the adoption of EVs and the world’s transition to clean energy.

 

Since its founding in 2010, Nuvve has been responsible for successful V2G projects on five continents and is deploying commercial services worldwide.

 

Technology

 

The Nuvve platform dynamically manages power to and from EVs and the grid at scale. Our intelligent V2G technology allows owners to efficiently meet the energy demands of individual vehicles and entire fleets. With Nuvve, the grid becomes more resilient through the benefits of greater networked battery capacity.

 

Nuvve’s Grid Integrated Vehicle (“GIVe”) software platform enables it to aggregate multiple EV batteries into a virtual power plant, or “VPP,” to provide bidirectional services to the electrical grid in a qualified and secure manner. VPPs can generate revenue by selling excess power to utility companies, utilizing the stored power to perform grid services, or reduce building energy peak consumption. Nuvve is capable of providing many levels of vehicle-grid integration, or “VGI,” and V2G services such as time of use optimization, or “TOU,” demand response, demand charge management and wholesale energy market participation, thereby providing revenues from grid services as well as utility bill savings behind the meter.

 

Market Opportunity and the Nuvve Solution

 

The EV industry has grown rapidly since Nuvve was founded in 2010. According to the Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) Vehicle-to-Grid: Big Opportunities, Big Challenges (March 2021), by 2040, there will be 500 million EVs on the road by 2040. In addition, countries around the world are expected to become increasingly focused on meeting climate goals, in part, by reducing the environmental effects of internal combustion engine vehicles, which account for approximately 45% of global carbon dioxide (“CO2”) emissions (source: ourworldindata.org).

 

As EV adoption grows, the associated charging infrastructure needed to support EVs has also seen a growth trend over the last few years. According to an April 2021 report from Schroders, the number of public charging points has grown from just over 600,000 at the end of 2018 to reach over 1.3 million by the end of 2020. The same report projects the annual run-rate of investment in charging points will be $80 billion over the next 20 years.

 

Additional factors propelling this shift to electrification include proposed fossil fuel bans or restrictions, transit electrification mandates, utility incentive programs and declining battery costs.

 

However, as EV adoption grows, demand for electricity as a transportation fuel may lead to congestion and overloading on transmission and local distribution grids. A significant investment is predicted to be needed to upgrade the electric grid to support this influx.

 

Simultaneously, higher penetration of renewable energy sources (such as solar and wind generation) inherently increases grid volatility. Nuvve believes that this combination of factors further drives the need for intelligent VGI and V2G capabilities to effectively regulate grid voltage and frequency on a real time basis and address other common challenges such as massive morning and afternoon grid ramping.

 

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With V2G services capturing available grid value streams such as frequency regulation, adaptive power, smart charging, smart charging/discharging, and peak-shaving services as part of the solution, the EV fleet owner/operator can symbiotically assist in improving and assuring grid stabilization while earning revenues. These revenues can be shared with the ratepayer to save in transportation energy costs and thereby effectively lower the cost of EV ownership. V2G services can also help mitigate intermittency issues associated with renewables by (1) continuously injecting or absorbing energy to and from the grid every few seconds to help to regulate frequency; and (2) be orderly and intelligently dispatched over a larger time period to mitigate the enormous needs for capacity ramping. Perhaps most importantly, EVs represent one of the most appropriate solutions to act as dispatchable distributed energy resources during renewable-rich mid-day periods by absorbing excess energy which might otherwise be curtailed or create transmission network congestion problems.

 

Corporate History

 

Nuvve HoldCo was incorporated in Delaware on November 10, 2020 under the name “NB Merger Corp.” We were formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Newborn for the purpose of effecting the Business Combination and to serve as the publicly traded parent company of Nuvve following the Business Combination. In connection with the Business Combination, we changed our name to “Nuvve Holding Corp.” Nuvve OpCo was incorporated in Delaware law on October 15, 2010 under the name “Nuvve Corporation.” As part of the Business Combination, Nuvve OpCo merged with Merger Sub, with Nuvve OpCo surviving as our wholly owned subsidiary. Newborn was incorporated in the Cayman Islands on April 12, 2019 under the name “Newborn Acquisition Corp.” Newborn was formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization, or similar business combination with one or more businesses. As part of the Business Combination, Newborn reincorporated to Delaware by merging with and into Nuvve HoldCo, with Nuvve HoldCo surviving the merger.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 2488 Historic Decatur Road, San Diego, California 92106. Our telephone number is (619) 456-5161. Our website address is www.nuvve.com. Information contained on our website or connected thereto does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the “JOBS Act.” As an emerging growth company, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These include, but are not limited to:

 

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;

 

not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditors’ report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements;

 

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation; and

 

exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

 

Additionally, Under the JOBS Act, an emerging growth company can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We irrevocably elected to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards, and, therefore, are not subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as public companies who were not emerging growth companies.

 

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of June 30th of that fiscal year, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year (as indexed for inflation), (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in the prior three-year period, and (iv) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of equity securities of Newborn (our predecessor) in its initial public offering, or December 31, 2025.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

The following summary contains basic terms about this offering and the common stock and is not intended to be complete. It may not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the more detailed information contained in this prospectus supplement, including but not limited to, the risk factors beginning on page 5 and the other risks described in the annual and quarterly reports incorporated by reference therein.

 

Issuer   Nuvve Holding Corp.
     
Common stock offered by us pursuant to this prospectus supplement   Up to $25,000,000 in shares of common stock.
     
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering   Up to 21,769,427 shares of our common stock, assuming the sale of all $25,000,000 in shares of common stock offered hereby at an offering price of $8.62 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on April 14, 2022. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
     
Manner of offering   Sales of shares of our common stock, if any, will be made pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement. Sales may be made by any method permitted by law that is deemed to be an “at the market offering”, as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, which includes sales made directly on the Nasdaq Capital Market, the existing trading market for our common stock, on any other existing trading market for our common stock, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. Craig-Hallum will make these sales using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law, on mutually agreeable terms between Craig-Hallum and us. Under the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may also sell shares to Craig-Hallum as principal for its own account, or through Craig-Hallum in privately negotiated transactions with our prior consent. If we and Craig-Hallum agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of our common stock into the Nasdaq Capital Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act. See “Plan of Distribution” on page 16.
     
Use of proceeds   We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of our common stock in this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over how the net proceeds are used. The net proceeds that we receive from sales of our common stock will depend on the number of shares actually sold and the offering price for such shares. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 10.
     
Risk Factors   See the section entitled “Risk Factors” on page 5 and in the documents incorporated by reference herein for a discussion of factors you should consider carefully before deciding to invest in our common stock.
     
Nasdaq Capital Market Symbol   NVVE

 

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Except as otherwise indicated, the information contained in this prospectus is based on 18,869,195 shares of our common stock outstanding as of April 14, 2022. The number of shares of common stock outstanding does not include the shares issuable under our warrants, options and restricted stock units outstanding as of April 14, 2022, as follows:

 

4,365,000 shares issuable upon exercise of the pre-merger warrants, which have an exercise price of $11.50 per whole share, are currently exercisable and expire in March 2026;

 

347,875 shares and 316,250 pre-merger warrants issuable upon exercise of the unit purchase option granted to the underwriter of Newborn’s initial public offering, which has an exercise price of $11.50 per unit of 1 1/10 shares and one pre-merger warrant, is currently exercisable and expires on February 13, 2023, and 158,125 shares issuable upon exercise of the 316,250 pre-merger warrants;

 

6,000,000 shares issuable upon exercise the warrants issued in connection with the formation of the Levo joint venture (the “Levo warrants”), which warrants have exercise prices ranging from $10.00 per share to $40.00 per share, become exercisable as described below and expire on May 17, 2031;

 

5,000,000 shares issuable upon exercise of the option embodied in the stock purchase agreement executed by us in connection with the formation of the Levo joint venture (the “Levo SPA”), which option has a purchase price of $50.00 per share, becomes exercisable as described below and expires on November 17, 2028,

 

2,738,575 shares issuable upon exercise of our outstanding stock options, which have a weighted average exercise price of approximately $9.19 per share and an average remaining life of approximately 7.80 years; and

 

350,925 shares issuable upon settlement of outstanding restricted stock units.

 

As of April 14, 2022, we also had 1,321,374 shares reserved for issuance, but not subject to outstanding awards, under our long-term incentive equity plan. In addition, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer have committed to purchase from us 134,499 shares of our common stock at a price of $14.87 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $2,000,000.

 

Except as otherwise indicated, the information contained in this prospectus assumes the sale of all of the shares offered hereby at a price of $8.62 per share, which was the closing price on the Nasdaq Capital Market on April 14, 2022.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before you make a decision to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risk factors described below, together with other information in this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein set forth in our filings with the SEC, including our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business and results of operations. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be seriously harmed. In that event, the market price for our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

The actual number of shares we will issue in this offering, and the amount of proceeds that we will receive, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver sales notices to Craig-Hallum at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Craig-Hallum after delivery of a sales notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with Craig-Hallum. In addition, we are not obligated to issue any shares under the Sales Agreement. Accordingly, and because the price per share of each share that is sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares, if any, that will ultimately be issued, or the resulting proceeds to us.

 

A substantial number of shares of our common stock may be sold in this offering, which could cause the price of our common stock to decline.

 

The sale of shares to be issued in this offering in the public market, or any future sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market. We cannot predict the effect, if any, that market sales of those shares of common stock or the availability of those shares of common stock for sale will have on the market price of our common stock.

 

Investors who buy shares of our common stock in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares of our common stock in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices and may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to the effect of market conditions, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold in this offering. Investors who buy at one time may experience a decline in the value of their shares of our common stock, while investors who buy at another time do not. Many factors could have an impact on the market price of our common stock over time, including the factors described or incorporated by reference in this “Risk Factors” section of the prospectus supplement.

 

We have never paid cash dividends on its capital stock, and we do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

We have never paid cash dividends on any of our capital stock and we currently intend to retain any future earnings to fund the growth of our business. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that the board may deem relevant. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

 

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Our stock price may be volatile, and purchasers of our securities could incur substantial losses.

 

We expect the trading price of our common stock and pre-merger warrants to be volatile and such securities could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in operating results;

 

failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;

 

issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts or changed recommendations for our stock or the transportation industry in general;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;

 

operating and share price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;

 

our focus on long-term goals over short-term results;

 

the timing and magnitude of our investments in the growth of it business;

 

actual or anticipated changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

 

additions or departures of key management or other personnel;

 

disputes or other developments related to our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, including litigation;

 

our ability to market new and enhanced products and technologies on a timely basis;

 

sales of substantial amounts of the common stock by executive officers, directors or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur;

 

changes in our capital structure, including future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt;

 

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the response of governments and business to the pandemic; and

 

general economic, political and market conditions.

 

In addition, the stock market in general, and Nasdaq in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our securities, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of its management’s attention and resources.

 

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Even if we sell all of the shares offered hereby, we anticipate that we will continue to seek external sources of financing to fund operations in the future.

 

Our revenue generating activities have not yet produced sufficient funds for profitable operations. Accordingly, while we may raise gross proceeds of up to a maximum of $25,000,000 through the issuance of shares under the Sales Agreement, we may need to raise additional capital in the future to further scale our business and expand to additional markets. We may raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-related or debt securities, or through obtaining credit from government or financial institutions. We cannot be certain that additional funds will be available on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot raise additional funds when needed, our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. If we raise funds through the issuance of debt securities or through loan arrangements, the terms of such financings could require significant interest payments, contain covenants that restrict our business, or otherwise include unfavorable terms. In addition, to the extent we raise funds through the sale of additional equity securities, our stockholders would experience additional dilution.

 

Our management will have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

 

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, and our stockholders will not have the opportunity as part of their investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 10 for a description of our proposed use of proceeds from this offering.

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of the common stock you purchase.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate 2,900,232 shares of our common stock are sold in this offering at an assumed offering price of $8.62 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on April 14, 2022, for aggregate gross proceeds of $25.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $3.80 per share, representing the difference between our net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2022, on an unaudited pro forma basis after giving effect to this offering, and the assumed offering price.

 

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NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act,” and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the “Exchange Act.” All statements, other than statements of present or historical fact included in this prospectus, our future financial performance, strategy, expansion plans, future operations, future operating results, estimated revenues, losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. Any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination, and the financial conditions, results of operations, earnings outlook and prospects of Nuvve and other statements about the period following the consummation of the Business Combination. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “believe,” “estimate,” “continue,” “goal,” “project” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We caution you that these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control.

 

The section in this prospectus titled “Risk Factors,” including the information incorporated by reference therein, and the other cautionary language discussed in this prospectus provide examples of risks and uncertainties that may cause actual developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including those relating to:

 

our early stage of development, our history of net losses, and our expectation for losses to continue in the future;

 

our ability to manage growth effectively;

 

our reliance on charging station manufacturing and other partners;

 

existing and future competition in the EV charging market;

 

pandemics and health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

our ability to increase sales of our products and services, especially to fleet operators;

 

the adoption of bi-directional Vehicle-to-Grid technology;

 

the rate of electrification of U.S. school bus fleets, and other fleet vehicles;

 

our participation in the energy markets;

 

the interconnection of our GIVe™️ platform to the electrical grid;

 

the rate of adoption of Transportation-as-a-Service;

 

significant payments under the intellectual property acquisition agreement pursuant which the University of Delaware assigned to us certain of its key patents underlying the V2G technology;

 

our international operations, including related tax, compliance, market and other risks;

 

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our ability to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical and vehicle engineering personnel;

 

inexperience of our management in operating a public company;

 

acquisitions by us of other businesses;

 

the rate of adoption of EVs;

 

the rate of technological change in the industry;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property rights;

 

our investment in research and development;

 

our ability to expand sales and marketing capabilities;

 

our ability to raise additional funds when needed;

 

our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of our Levo joint venture;

 

the existence of identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting;

 

electric utility statutes and regulations and changes to such statutes or regulations;

 

volatility in the trading price of our securities; and

 

our status as an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act.

 

Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize or should any of the assumptions made by the management of Nuvve prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements concerning any matters addressed in this prospectus and attributable to Nuvve or any person acting on their behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this prospectus. Except to the extent required by applicable law or regulation, Nuvve undertakes no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We estimate the net proceeds to us from the sale of the shares in this offering will be approximately $24.1 million, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. However, because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to any sales in this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement as a source of financing.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of our common stock in this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes. We have not identified the amounts we will spend on any specific purpose. Accordingly, our management will have significant discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds from the sale of these securities. Pending the application of such proceeds, we expect to invest the proceeds in short-term, interest bearing, investment-grade marketable securities or money market obligations.

 

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DILUTION

 

If you invest in our shares, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price you paid per share of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering. Net tangible book value per share represents total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding.

 

Our net tangible book value as of December 31, 2021 was approximately $80.7 million, or approximately $4.28 per share of our common stock issued and outstanding, on an unaudited historical actual basis as of such date.

 

Our net tangible book value as of December 31, 2021 would have been approximately $104.8 million, or approximately $4.82 per share of our common stock issued and outstanding, on an unaudited pro forma basis as of such date, after giving effect to the sale by us of 2,900,232 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $8.62 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on April 14, 2022, for aggregate gross proceeds of $25,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.54 per share of our common stock to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $3.80 per share of our common stock to new investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering at the assumed offering price.

 

The following table illustrates the dilution on a per share of common stock basis for investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering:

  

Assumed public offering price per share in this offering       $8.62 
Net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2021  $4.28      
Increase in net tangible book value attributable to this offering  $0.54      
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2021       $4.82 
Dilution per share to new investors in this offering       $3.80 

 

The per share calculations above are based on the number of shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021, as follows: 18,861,130 shares on an unaudited historical actual basis and 21,761,362 shares on an unaudited pro forma basis.

 

The table above assumes, for illustrative purposes, that an aggregate of 2,900,232 shares of our common stock are sold at an offering price of $8.62 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on April 14, 2022, for aggregate gross proceeds of $25,000,000. However, the shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. Presented below, solely for illustrative purposes only, is the effect of each of an increase and a decrease of the assumed offering price by $1.00 per share.

 

Assuming that an aggregate of 2,598,753 shares of our common stock are sold at an offering price of $9.62 per share, representing an increase of $1.00 per share from the assumed offering price above, for aggregate gross proceeds of $25,000,000, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value per share on a pro forma basis would be $4.88 per share and the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors would be $4.74 per share.

 

Assuming that an aggregate of 3,280,840 shares of our common stock are sold at an offering price of $7.62 per share, representing a decrease of $1.00 per share from the assumed offering price above, for aggregate gross proceeds of $25,000,000, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value per share on a pro forma basis would be $4.73 per share and the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors would be $2.89 per share.

 

The foregoing information does not take into account the exercise of our outstanding warrants or options, the settlement of our outstanding restricted stock units, or the other issuances of common stock as set forth in “The Offering.” To the extent that other shares are issued, investors purchasing shares in this offering could experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of those securities could result in further dilution to investors in this offering.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

 

In the discussion that follows, we have summarized selected provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the “DGCL,” relating to our capital stock. This summary is not complete, is subject to the relevant provisions of Delaware law and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws. You should read the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws as currently in effect for provisions that may be important to you.

 

Authorized Capital Stock

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

 

As of April 14, 2022, there were 18,869,195 shares of our common stock outstanding and no shares of our preferred stock outstanding. The number of shares of common stock outstanding does not include the shares issuable under our warrants, options and restricted stock units outstanding as of April 14, 2022, as follows:

 

4,365,000 shares issuable upon exercise of the pre-merger warrants, which have an exercise price of $11.50 per whole share, are currently exercisable and expire in March 2026;

 

347,875 shares and 316,250 pre-merger warrants issuable upon exercise of the unit purchase option granted to the underwriter of Newborn’s initial public offering, which has an exercise price of $11.50 per unit of 1 1/10 shares and one pre-merger warrant, is currently exercisable and expires on February 13, 2023, and 158,125 shares issuable upon exercise of the 316,250 pre-merger warrants;

 

6,000,000 shares issuable upon exercise the warrants issued in connection with the formation of the Levo joint venture (the “Levo warrants”), which warrants have exercise prices ranging from $10.00 per share to $40.00 per share, become exercisable as described below and expire on May 17, 2031;

 

5,000,000 shares issuable upon exercise of the option embodied in the stock purchase agreement executed by us in connection with the formation of the Levo joint venture (the “Levo SPA”), which option has a purchase price of $50.00 per share, becomes exercisable as described below and expires on November 17, 2028,

 

2,738,575 shares issuable upon exercise of our outstanding stock options, which have a weighted average exercise price of approximately $9.19 per share and an average remaining life of approximately 7.80 years; and

 

350,925 shares issuable upon settlement of outstanding restricted stock units.

 

As of April 14, 2022, we also had 1,321,374 shares reserved for issuance, but not subject to outstanding awards, under our long-term incentive equity plan. In addition, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer have committed to purchase from us 134,499 shares of our common stock at a price of $14.87 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $2,000,000.

 

Common Stock

 

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters to be voted on by shareholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. There will be no cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors, with the result that the holders of more than 50% of the shares of common stock voted for the election of directors can elect all of the directors. The holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive dividends, if and when declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up, our stockholders will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining available for distribution to them after payment of liabilities and after provision is made for each class of stock, if any, having preference over the common stock. Holders of our common stock will have no conversion, preemptive or other subscription rights, and there will be no sinking fund or redemption provisions applicable to our common stock.

 

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Preferred Stock

 

Our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors the authority, without further stockholder authorization, to issue from time to time up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the terms, limitations, voting rights, relative rights and preferences and variations of each series. If we issue preferred stock, such preferred stock may have priority over our common stock with respect to dividends and other distributions, including the distribution of assets upon liquidation. Although we have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock, the issuance of shares of preferred stock, or the issuance of rights to purchase such shares, could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to the holders of our common stock, could adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of the common stock and could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change of control of the Company or an unsolicited acquisition proposal.

 

Dividends

 

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. Any future decisions regarding dividends will be made by our board of directors. We do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future but expect to retain earnings to finance the growth of our business. Our board of directors has complete discretion on whether to pay dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors the board of directors may deem relevant.

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

Provisions of the DGCL and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make it more difficult to acquire us by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise, or to remove incumbent officers and directors. These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage certain types of coercive takeover practices and takeover bids that our board of directors may consider inadequate and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover or acquisition proposals because, among other things, negotiation of these proposals could result in improved terms for our stockholders.

 

Staggered Board. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our board shall be divided into three classes with only one class of directors being elected in each year and each class serving a three-year term. The number of directors in each class shall be as nearly equal as possible. As a result, in most circumstances, a person can gain control of our board of directors only by successfully engaging in a proxy contest at two or more annual or special meetings.

 

Because the board is classified, directors may be removed only for cause. Further, our certificate of incorporation provides for the removal of directors for cause only by the affirmative vote of at least 66⅔% of the total voting power of all the then outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class (other than those directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock, who shall be removed pursuant to the terms of such Preferred Stock).

 

Authorized but Unissued Shares. Our authorized but unissued common stock and preferred stock will be available for future issuances without stockholder approval and could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

Appointment of directors. Our certificate of incorporation provides that newly created directorships (including those created by the board) or any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled by a majority vote of the remaining directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. The exercise of this authority may prevent stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on the board.

 

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Special Meeting of Stockholders. Our bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called only at the direction of our board of directors, our Chairman of the Board, or our Chief Executive Officer. The existence of this provision could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors.

 

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations. Our bylaws provide that stockholders of record seeking to bring business before a special meeting of stockholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a special meeting of stockholders, must provide timely notice of their intent in writing. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice will need to be received by the secretary at our principal executive offices not later than the 60th day nor earlier than 90th day prior to the meeting. Pursuant to Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act, proposals seeking inclusion in our annual proxy statement must comply with the notice periods contained therein. Our bylaws also specify certain requirements as to the form and content of a stockholders’ meeting. These provisions may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before a meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at a meeting of stockholders.

 

Stockholder action by written consent. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provides that any action required or permitted to be a taken by stockholders must be taken at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and may not be effected by written consent unless such action is recommended or approved by all members of the board then in office.

 

Supermajority voting requirements. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws require the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66⅔% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the voting stock, voting together as a single class, to amend certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation or to amend our bylaws, which may inhibit the ability of an acquiror to effect such amendments to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt.

 

Exclusive forum selection. Our certificate of incorporation requires that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, in the event that the Chancery Court does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware or other state courts of the State of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of we, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer, employee or agent of we to we or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws (as either may be amended from time to time), (iv) any action or proceeding to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws (including any right, obligation, or remedy thereunder) or (v) any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine. These provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act, the Securities Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the fullest extent permitted by law, claims made under the Securities Act must be brought in federal district court. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

 

The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with claims arising under federal securities laws, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in or amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable. If that were the case, because stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, it would allow stockholders to bring claims for breach of these provisions in any appropriate forum.

 

Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.

 

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Section 203 of the DGCL. We have not opted out of Section 203 of the DGCL under our certificate of incorporation. As a result, pursuant to Section 203 of the DGCL, we are prohibited from engaging in any business combination with any stockholder for a period of three years following the time that such stockholder, or the “interested stockholder,” came to own at least 15% of the outstanding voting stock, or the “acquisition,” except if:

 

the board of directors approved the acquisition prior to its consummation;

 

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the outstanding voting stock upon consummation of the acquisition; or

 

the Business Combination is approved by the board of directors, and by a 2/3 majority vote of the other stockholders in a meeting.

 

Generally, a “business combination” includes any merger, consolidation, asset or stock sale or certain other transactions resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with that person’s affiliates and associates, owns, or within the previous three years owned, 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock.

 

Under certain circumstances, declining to opt out of Section 203 of the DGCL will make it more difficult for a person who would be an “interested stockholder” to effect various business combinations with us for a three-year period. This may encourage companies interested in acquiring us to negotiate in advance with our board of directors because the stockholder approval requirement would be avoided if the board approves the acquisition which results in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. This may also have the effect of preventing changes in our board of directors and may make it more difficult to accomplish transactions which stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

 

Limitation on Directors’ Liability and Indemnification

 

The DGCL authorizes corporations to limit or eliminate, subject to certain conditions, the personal liability of directors to corporations and their stockholders for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duties. Our certificate of incorporation limits the liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.

 

We have director and officer liability insurance to cover liabilities our directors and officers may incur in connection with their services to the combined company, including matters arising under the Securities Act. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws also provide that we will indemnify our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. In addition, we have entered into customary indemnification agreements with each of its officers and directors.

 

There is no pending litigation or proceeding involving any of our directors, officers, employees or agents in which indemnification will be required or permitted. We are not aware of any threatened litigation or proceedings that may result in a claim for such indemnification.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, executive officers or persons controlling us, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Listing

 

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NVVE.”

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company located at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We intend to enter into an At the Market Sales Agreement with Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC , which we refer to as the “Sales Agreement,” that provides for the issuance and sale by us of shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $25.0 million from time to time through Craig-Hallum acting as agent. Under the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may also sell shares to Craig-Hallum as principal for its own account.

 

Upon instructions from us, Craig-Hallum will use commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal sales and trading practices and applicable law, to sell shares of our common stock under the Sales Agreement pursuant to this prospectus. Sales of shares of common stock, if any, pursuant to this prospectus may be made by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including, without limitation, sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Capital Market, the existing trading market for the common stock, on any other existing trading market for our common stock, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices or in privately negotiated transactions. If we and Craig-Hallum agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of our common stock into the Nasdaq Capital Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act. To the extent required by Regulation M, Craig-Hallum will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

 

Under the Sales Agreement between us and Craig-Hallum, we will instruct Craig-Hallum in a sales notice as to the maximum amount of shares of our common stock to be sold by Craig-Hallum daily, and the minimum price per share at which such shares may be sold. Subject to the conditions of the Sales Agreement, Craig-Hallum will use its commercially reasonable efforts to solicit purchases on a particular day of all shares designated for sale by us on that day. The gross sales price of the shares sold will be the market price for shares of our common stock sold by Craig-Hallum on the trading market at the time of sale of the shares. We or Craig-Hallum may suspend the offering of our common stock upon proper notice and subject to certain other conditions. The obligation of Craig-Hallum under the Sales Agreement to sell our common stock pursuant to a sales notice is subject to a number of conditions.

 

Craig-Hallum will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market following each day in which shares of our common stock are sold under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on the day, the aggregate gross sales proceeds, the net proceeds to us and the compensation payable by us to Craig-Hallum with respect to the sales.

 

We will pay Craig-Hallum commissions for its services in acting as our agent in the sale of our common stock. The compensation payable to Craig-Hallum for sales of shares of our common stock with respect to which Craig-Hallum acts as sales agent shall be equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price of those shares. There is no guarantee that there will be any sales of our common stock under this prospectus and actual sales, if any, of our common stock under this prospectus may result in gross proceeds to us of less than $25.0 million, exclusive of any sales agent compensation or other offering fees and expenses.

 

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Settlement for sales of shares of our common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of shares of our common stock on our behalf, Craig-Hallum may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Craig-Hallum may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to reimburse Craig-Hallum for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $60,000 in connection with the Sales Agreement. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Craig-Hallum with respect to certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.

 

We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Craig-Hallum under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $125,000.

 

The offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all of our common stock provided for in this prospectus, or (2) the termination of the Sales Agreement. The Sales Agreement may be terminated by us at any time in our sole discretion by giving five business days’ written notice to Craig-Hallum, or by Craig-Hallum at any time in its sole discretion. The Sales Agreement will remain in full force and effect until the earlier of one year from the date of this prospectus and such date that the Sales Agreement is terminated in accordance with the terms thereof, subject to extension of the term upon mutual agreement of Craig-Hallum and us.

 

This is a brief summary of the material provisions of the Sales Agreement and does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of both the Sales Agreement and the Amendment will be filed with the SEC as exhibits to Current Reports on Form 8-K and will be incorporated herein by reference.

 

Craig-Hallum and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. The principal business address of Craig-Hallum is 222 South Ninth Street, Suite 350, Minneapolis, MN 55402.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities offered will be passed upon for us by Graubard Miller, New York, New York. Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, New York, New York, is acting as counsel for Craig-Hallum in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Nuvve Holding Corp. incorporated in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 by reference from Nuvve Holding Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, have been audited by Moss Adams LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room at 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information about the public reference room.

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement, at prescribed rates, from the SEC at the address listed above.

 

The registration statement and our SEC filings, including the documents referred to below under “Information Incorporated by Reference,” are also available on our website, www.nuvve.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.

 

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below, all filings we make under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the initial filing date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, and all filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after effectiveness of such registration statement and prior to the sale of all of the securities offered hereby:

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 (filed on March 31, 2022), as amended on Form 10-K/A (filed on April 22, 2022);

 

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 14, 2022; and

 

the description of our common stock on Form 8-K12B, effective March 25, 2021, registering our common stock pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act pursuant to Rule 12g-3 thereunder, including any amendment(s) or report(s) filed for the purpose of updating such description, including the description of securities filed as an exhibit to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K.

  

Any statement contained in a document filed before the date of this prospectus and incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. Any information that we file after the date of this prospectus with the SEC and incorporated by reference herein will automatically update and supersede the information contained in this prospectus and in any document previously incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we are not incorporating any document or portion thereof or information deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rule.

 

We will provide you with a copy of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, without charge, upon written or oral request directed to Nuvve Holding Corp., 2488 Historic Decatur Road, San Diego, California 92106, telephone number (619) 456-5161. You may also access the documents incorporated by reference as described under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

18

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nuvve Holding Corp.

 

 

 

 

 

$25,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Craig-Hallum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_______, 2022

  

 

  

 

 

 

PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The estimated expenses in connection with the sale of the securities being registered hereby, are as follows:

 

SEC registration fee  $9,270.00 
FINRA filing fee   15,500.00 
Listing fees and expenses   (1)
Accounting fees and expenses   (1)
Legal fees and expenses   (1)
Printing expenses   (1)
Transfer agent fees and expenses   (1)
Miscellaneous   (1)
Total   (1)

 

 

(1)These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

The actual expenses incurred will depend on the securities offered, the number of issuances and the nature of the offerings. We estimate that the expenses in connection with the sale of securities in the “at-the-market” offering described in the ATM Prospectus (other than commissions and reimbursements payable to Craig-Hallum under the terms of the sales agreement) will be accounting fees and expenses of $10,000, legal fees and expenses of $20,000 and other miscellaneous expenses of $10,000.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Subsection (a) of Section 145 of the DGCL empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or who is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful.

 

Subsection (b) of Section 145 empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person acted in any of the capacities set forth above, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

 

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Section 145 further provides that to the extent a director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith; that indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the indemnified party may be entitled; and the indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of such person’s heirs, executors and administrators. Section 145 also empowers the corporation to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liabilities under Section 145.

 

Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide for indemnification of our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL. In addition, we entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law, including the DGCL, against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. We also intend to enter into indemnification agreements with our future directors and officers.

 

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides that a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may contain a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, provided that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

Our certificate of incorporation limits the liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, executive officers or persons controlling us, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

A list of the exhibits required by Item 601 of Regulation S-K to be filed as part of this registration statement is set forth in the Exhibit Index on page II-5.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

(a)       The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

 

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(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

Provided, however, that:

 

Paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i)(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(6) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

 

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(h) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(j) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

II-3

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, hereunto duly authorized, in San Diego, California on April 22, 2022.

 

  NUVVE HOLDING CORP.
   
  By: /s/ Gregory Poilasne
  Name:  Gregory Poilasne
  Title: Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer

 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Gregory Poilasne and David Robson, and each of them, with full power to act without the other, such person’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and re-substitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign this registration statement, any and all amendments thereto (including post-effective amendments), any subsequent registration statements pursuant to Rule 462 of the Securities Act of 1933, and any amendments thereto and to file the same, with exhibits and schedules thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signatures   Title   Date
         
By: /s/ Gregory Poilasne   Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board   April 22, 2022
  Gregory Poilasne    (Principal Executive Officer)    
           
By: /s/ Ted Smith   President and Chief Operating Officer   April 22, 2022
  Ted Smith        
           
By: /s/ David G. Robson   Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer   April 22, 2022
  David G. Robson    and Principal Accounting Officer)    
           
By: /s/ Richard A. Ashby   Director   April 22, 2022
  Richard A. Ashby        
           
By: /s/ Rashida La Lande   Director   April 22, 2022
  Rashida La Lande        
           
By: /s/ Jon M. Montgomery   Director   April 22, 2022
  Jon M. Montgomer        
           
By: /s/ H. David Sherman   Director   April 22, 2022
  H. David Sherman        
           
By: /s/ Angela Strand   Director   April 22, 2022
  Angela Strand        
           
By: /s/ Kenji Yodose   Director   April 22, 2022
  Kenji Yodose        

 

II-4

 

  

EXHIBIT INDEX

  

Exhibit No.   Description
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement.*
     
1.2   At the Market Sales Agreement by and between Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC and the Registrant.*
     
2.1   Merger Agreement dated November 11, 2020 (incorporated by reference to Annex A to the prospectus filed under Rule 424(b)(3) by the Registrant on February 17, 2021).
     
2.2   Amendment No. 1 to Merger Agreement dated February 20, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by Newborn on February 23, 2020).
     
4.1   Description of Securities (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K filed by the Registrant on March 31, 2022).
     
4.2   Specimen Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registration Statement on Form S-4 filed by the Registrant on February 4, 2021).
     
4.3   Specimen Warrant Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registration Statement on Form S-4 filed by the Registrant on February 4, 2021).
     
4.4   Warrant Agreement, dated February 13, 2020, by and between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company and the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by Newborn on February 20, 2020).
     
4.5   Amendment No. 1 to Warrant Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the Registrant on March 25, 2021).
     
4.6   Unit Purchase Option, dated February 19, 2020, between the Registrant and Chardan Capital Markets LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.7 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by Newborn on February 20, 2020).
     
4.7   Amendment No. 1 to Unit Purchase Option (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the Registrant on March 25, 2021).
     
4.8   Form of Series B, C, D, E and F Warrants issued on May 17, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the Registrant on May 17, 2021).
     
4.9   Form of Indenture for Senior Debt Securities between the Registrant and Trustee to be designated.
     
4.10   Form of Indenture for Subordinated Debt Securities between the Registrant and Trustee to be designated.
     
4.11   Preferred Stock Certificate of Designations.*
     
4.12   Warrant Agreement.*
     
4.13   Unit Agreement.*
     
5.1   Opinion of Graubard Miller.
     
10.1   Form of Securities Purchase Agreement.*

 

II-5

 

 

Exhibit No.   Description
23.1   Consent of Moss Adams LLP.
     
23.2   Consent of Graubard Miller (included in its opinion filed as Exhibit 5.1).
     
24.1   Power of Attorney (set forth on signature page).
     
25.1   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1 with respect to the Senior Debt Indenture.**
     
25.2   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1 with respect to the Subordinated Debt Indenture.**
     
107   Filing Fee Table.

  

*To be filed, if applicable, subsequent to the effectiveness of this registration statement by an amendment to this registration statement or by incorporation by reference through a Current Report on Form 8-K filed in connection with an offering of securities.

   

**To be filed, if applicable, by amendment or pursuant to the Section 305(b)(2) of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

 

II-6

 

Exhibit 4.9

 

 

 

 

 

NUVVE HOLDING CORP.,

As Issuer,

 

AND

 

[_______________],

As Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

DATED AS OF [__________] [___], 20[__]

 

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended  Indenture
310(a)  7.10
310(b)  7.09;7.11
310(c)  Inapplicable
311(a)  7.14
311(b)  7.14
311(c)  Inapplicable
312(a)  5.02(a)
312(b)  5.02(c)
312(c)  Inapplicable
313(a)  5.04(a)
313(b)  5.04(b)
313(c)  5.04(a);5.04(b)
313(d)  5.04(c)
314(a)  5.03;4.06
314(b)  Inapplicable
314(c)  13.07
314(d)  Inapplicable
314(e)  13.07
314(f)  Inapplicable
315(a)  7.01(a);7.03
315(b)  7.02
315(c)  7.01
315(d)  7.01(b)
315(e)  6.07;7.07
316(a)  6.06;8.04
316(b)  6.04
316(c)  8.01
317(a)  6.02
317(b)  4.03
318(a)  13.09

 

 

(1)This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions

 

i

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)

 

ARTICLE I   DEFINITIONS 1
   
SECTION 1.01  DEFINITIONS OF TERMS. 1
   
ARTICLE II   ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 4
   
SECTION 2.01  DESIGNATION AND TERMS OF SECURITIES. 4
SECTION 2.02  FORM OF SECURITIES AND TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE. 6
SECTION 2.03  DENOMINATIONS: PROVISIONS FOR PAYMENT. 6
SECTION 2.04  EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION. 7
SECTION 2.05  REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE. 7
SECTION 2.06  TEMPORARY SECURITIES. 8
SECTION 2.07  MUTILATED, DESTROYED, LOST OR STOLEN SECURITIES. 8
SECTION 2.08  CANCELLATION. 8
SECTION 2.09  BENEFITS OF INDENTURE. 9
SECTION 2.10  AUTHENTICATING AGENT. 9
SECTION 2.11  GLOBAL SECURITIES. 9
   
ARTICLE III   REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 11
   
SECTION 3.01  REDEMPTION. 11
SECTION 3.02  NOTICE OF REDEMPTION. 11
SECTION 3.03  PAYMENT UPON REDEMPTION. 11
SECTION 3.04  SINKING FUND. 12
SECTION 3.05  SATISFACTION OF SINKING FUND PAYMENTS WITH SECURITIES. 12
SECTION 3.06  REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES FOR SINKING FUND. 12
   
ARTICLE IV   COVENANTS 12
   
SECTION 4.01  PAYMENT OF PRINCIPAL, PREMIUM AND INTEREST. 12
SECTION 4.02  MAINTENANCE OF OFFICE OR AGENCY. 12
SECTION 4.03  PAYING AGENTS. 13
SECTION 4.04  APPOINTMENT TO FILL VACANCY IN OFFICE OF TRUSTEE. 13
SECTION 4.05  COMPLIANCE WITH CONSOLIDATION PROVISIONS. 14
SECTION 4.06  STATEMENT BY OFFICERS AS TO DEFAULT. 14
   
ARTICLE V   SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 14
   
SECTION 5.01  COMPANY TO FURNISH TRUSTEE NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF SECURITYHOLDERS. 14
SECTION 5.02  PRESERVATION OF INFORMATION; COMMUNICATIONS WITH SECURITYHOLDERS. 14
SECTION 5.03  REPORTS BY THE COMPANY. 14
SECTION 5.04  REPORTS BY THE TRUSTEE. 15
   
ARTICLE VI   REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 16
   
SECTION 6.01  EVENTS OF DEFAULT. 16
SECTION 6.02  COLLECTION OF INDEBTEDNESS AND SUITS FOR ENFORCEMENT BY TRUSTEE. 17
SECTION 6.03  APPLICATION OF MONEYS COLLECTED. 18
SECTION 6.04  LIMITATION ON SUITS. 19
SECTION 6.05  RIGHTS AND REMEDIES CUMULATIVE; DELAY OR OMISSION NOT WAIVER. 19
SECTION 6.06  CONTROL BY SECURITYHOLDERS. 20
SECTION 6.07  UNDERTAKING TO PAY COSTS. 20

 

ii

 

 

ARTICLE VII   CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 20
   
SECTION 7.01  CERTAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRUSTEE. 20
SECTION 7.02  NOTICE OF DEFAULTS. 21
SECTION 7.03  CERTAIN RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE. 21
SECTION 7.04  TRUSTEE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR RECITALS OR ISSUANCE OR SECURITIES. 22
SECTION 7.05  MAY HOLD SECURITIES. 23
SECTION 7.06  MONEYS HELD IN TRUST. 23
SECTION 7.07  COMPENSATION AND REIMBURSEMENT. 23
SECTION 7.08  RELIANCE ON OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE. 23
SECTION 7.09  DISQUALIFICATION; CONFLICTING INTERESTS. 24
SECTION 7.10  CORPORATE TRUSTEE REQUIRED; ELIGIBILITY. 24
SECTION 7.11  RESIGNATION AND REMOVAL; APPOINTMENT OF SUCCESSOR. 24
SECTION 7.12  ACCEPTANCE OF APPOINTMENT BY SUCCESSOR. 25
SECTION 7.13  MERGER, CONVERSION, CONSOLIDATION OR SUCCESSION TO BUSINESS. 26
SECTION 7.14  PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST THE COMPANY. 26
   
ARTICLE VIII   CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 26
   
SECTION 8.01  EVIDENCE OF ACTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS. 26
SECTION 8.02  PROOF OF EXECUTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS. 27
SECTION 8.03  WHO MAY BE DEEMED OWNERS. 27
SECTION 8.04  CERTAIN SECURITIES OWNED BY COMPANY DISREGARDED. 27
SECTION 8.05  ACTIONS BINDING ON FUTURE SECURITYHOLDERS. 27
   
ARTICLE IX   SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 28
   
SECTION 9.01  SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS. 28
SECTION 9.02  SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITH CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS. 28
SECTION 9.03  EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES. 29
SECTION 9.04  SECURITIES AFFECTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES. 29
SECTION 9.05  EXECUTION OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES. 29
   
ARTICLE X   SUCCESSOR ENTITY 30
   
SECTION 10.01  COMPANY MAY CONSOLIDATE, ETC. 30
SECTION 10.02  SUCCESSOR ENTITY SUBSTITUTED. 30
SECTION 10.03  EVIDENCE OF CONSOLIDATION, ETC. TO TRUSTEE. 30
   
ARTICLE XI   SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 31
   
SECTION 11.01  SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE. 31
SECTION 11.02  DEFEASANCE. 31
SECTION 11.03  DEPOSITED MONEYS TO BE HELD IN TRUST. 32
SECTION 11.04  PAYMENT OF MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENTS. 32
SECTION 11.05  REPAYMENT TO COMPANY. 32
   
ARTICLE XII   IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 33
   
SECTION 12.01  NO RECOURSE. 33
   
ARTICLE XIII   MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 33
   
SECTION 13.01  EFFECT ON SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS. 33
SECTION 13.02  ACTIONS BY SUCCESSOR. 33
SECTION 13.03  SURRENDER OF COMPANY POWERS. 33
SECTION 13.04  NOTICES. 33
SECTION 13.05  GOVERNING LAW; WAIVER OF TRIAL BY JURY. 34
SECTION 13.06  TREATMENT OF SECURITIES AS DEBT. 34
SECTION 13.07  COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATES AND OPINIONS. 34
SECTION 13.08  PAYMENTS ON BUSINESS DAYS. 34
SECTION 13.09  CONFLICT WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT. 34
SECTION 13.10  COUNTERPARTS. 35
SECTION 13.11  SEPARABILITY. 35
SECTION 13.12  ASSIGNMENT. 35

 

 

(2)This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

iii

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [__________] [___], 20[_], between Nuvve Holding Corp., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [_____________], a [______________], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as provided in this Indenture, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of Securities or of series thereof.

 

ARTICLE I
DEFINITIONS

 

SECTION 1.01  DEFINITIONS OF TERMS.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act, or that are by reference in said Trust Indenture Act defined in the Securities Act (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

“ARTICLE”, “SECTION” or other subdivisions refer to Articles, Sections or other subdivisions of this Indenture.

 

“AUTHENTICATING AGENT” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

“BANKRUPTCY LAW” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

“BOARD OF DIRECTORS” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

“BOARD RESOLUTION” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

“BUSINESS DAY” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a Saturday or Sunday, or a day on which federal or state banking institutions in [________], are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

“CERTIFICATE” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company.  The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

“COMMISSION” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

“COMPANY” means Nuvve Holding Corp., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article X, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

1

 

 

“CORPORATE TRUST OFFICE” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [____________________________].

 

“COVENANT DEFEASANCE” has the meaning given in Section 11.02.

 

“CUSTODIAN” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

“DEFAULT” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

“DEFAULTED INTEREST” has the meaning given in Section 2.03.

 

“DEPOSITARY” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, [_________], another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

“EVENT OF DEFAULT” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

“EXCHANGE ACT” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or any successor statute or statutes thereto.

 

“GLOBAL SECURITY” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

“GOVERNMENTAL OBLIGATIONS” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the Holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the Holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“HEREIN”, “HEREOF” and “HEREUNDER”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

“INCLUDING”, unless the context requires otherwise, means including without limitation.

 

“INDENTURE” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof, including, for all purposes of this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be a part of and govern this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, respectively.  The term “Indenture” shall also include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

“INTEREST PAYMENT DATE”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

“LEGAL DEFEASANCE” has the meaning given in Section 11.02.

 

2

 

 

“OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof.  Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“OPINION OF COUNSEL” means an opinion in writing of legal counsel acceptable to the Trustee, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof.  Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT SECURITY” means any Security which provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01.

 

“OUTSTANDING”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III; or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07; provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given, made or taken any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action hereunder as of any date, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof which would be due and payable as of such date upon acceleration of the maturity thereof to such date pursuant to Section 6.01.

 

“PERSON” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, joint-stock company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“PREDECESSOR SECURITY” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

“RESPONSIBLE OFFICER”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer assigned to the [______________] [Division / Unit] (or any successor division or unit) of the Trustee located at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture, and for the purposes of Section 7.01(b)(ii) and Section 315(b) of the Trust Indenture Act shall also include any other officer of the Trustee to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“SECURITIES” means the debt securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“SECURITIES ACT” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or any successor statute or statutes thereto.

 

“SECURITYHOLDER”, “HOLDER of SECURITIES”, “REGISTERED HOLDER”, “HOLDER”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered on the books of the Company kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

“SECURITY REGISTER” has the meaning given in Section 2.05.

 

“SECURITY REGISTRAR” has the meaning given in Section 2.05.

 

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“SUBSIDIARY” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

“TRUSTEE” means [_______________] and, subject to the provisions of Article VII, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person.  The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

“TRUST INDENTURE ACT” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument.

 

“VOTING STOCK”, as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

ARTICLE II
ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

SECTION 2.01  DESIGNATION AND TERMS OF SECURITIES.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.  The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount, if any, of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto.  Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable, any original issue discount that may apply to the Securities of that series upon their issuance, the principal amount due at maturity and the place(s) of payment;

 

(4) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(5) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date or other method for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates;

 

(6) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of such extension;

 

(7) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

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(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(9) the form of the Securities of the series, including the form of the Trustee’s certificate of authentication for such series;

 

(10) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable (including denominations of foreign currency);

 

(11) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture);

 

(12) whether the Securities of the series are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series and any other or different terms in respect of such Global Security;

 

(13) whether the Securities of the series will be convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;

 

(14) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(15) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series;

 

(16) if applicable, that the Securities of the series, in whole or in specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Section 11.02 and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to defease such Securities shall be evidenced;

 

(17) if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable and the manner of determining the equivalent thereof in the currency of the United States of America for any purpose, including for purposes of the definition of “Outstanding” in Section 1.01, and/or the property, including securities of the Company, in which the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series may be payable and the terms and conditions of such payment in property; and

 

(18) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.  If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate setting forth the terms of the series.  Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.  Notwithstanding Section 2.01(2) and unless otherwise expressly provided with respect to a series of Securities, the aggregate principal amount of a series of Securities may be increased and additional Securities of such series may be issued up to the maximum aggregate principal amount authorized with respect to such series as increased.

 

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SECTION 2.02  FORM OF SECURITIES AND TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in or pursuant to a Board Resolution and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate.  The Securities may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

SECTION 2.03  DENOMINATIONS: PROVISIONS FOR PAYMENT.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(10).  The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rates specified or provided for with respect to that series.  Except as contemplated by Section 2.01(17), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in [________________]; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.  Except as contemplated by Section 2.01(4), interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.  Except as contemplated by Section 2.01(5), the interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment.  In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03. Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered Holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such Holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner:  the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided.  Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment.  The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date.  Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.  Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.  Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

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SECTION 2.04  EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries.  Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.  The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a President or Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the President or a Vice President, or the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company.  The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage.  A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent.  Such signature shall be conclusive evidence and the only evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.  At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its President or any Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.  In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture and that such Securities, when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Company in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with their terms, subject to any Bankruptcy Law or other insolvency, fraudulent transfer, reorganization, moratorium and similar laws of general applicability relating to or affecting creditors’ rights and to general equity principles and to other customary exceptions.  The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 2.05  REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

 

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in [____________], for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section.  In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in [_____________], or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.  The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).  Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.  All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered Holder or by such Holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c) No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.  The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption.  The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

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SECTION 2.06  TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination.  Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company.  Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series.  Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in [______________], and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company.  Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

SECTION 2.07  MUTILATED, DESTROYED, LOST OR STOLEN SECURITIES.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen.  In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof.  The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company.  Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.  In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.  Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder.  All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

SECTION 2.08  CANCELLATION.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture.  On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee.  In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company.  If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

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SECTION 2.09  BENEFITS OF INDENTURE.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the Holders of the Securities.

 

SECTION 2.10  AUTHENTICATING AGENT.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint.  Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder.  All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series.  Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities.  If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.  Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company.  The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company.  Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company.  Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.  Any corporation into which an Authenticating Agent may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which such Authenticating Agent shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate agency or corporate trust business of an Authenticating Agent, shall continue to be an Authenticating Agent, provided that such corporation shall be otherwise eligible under this Section, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of the Trustee or the Authenticating Agent.

 

SECTION 2.11  GLOBAL SECURITIES.

 

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that

 

(1) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all or a portion of the Outstanding Securities of such series,

 

(2) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee,

 

(3) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, and

 

(4) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect:  “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to the Depositary, another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to the Depositary for such series, another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

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(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series.  In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee.  Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee.  The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

(d) None of the Trustee, the Security Registrar or any paying agent shall have any responsibility or obligation to any beneficial owner in a Global Security, a member of, or a participant in the Depositary or other Person with respect to the accuracy of the records of the Depositary or its nominee or of any participant or member thereof, with respect to any ownership interest in the Securities or with respect to the delivery to any participant, member, beneficial owner or other Person (other than the Depositary) of any notice (including any notice of redemption) or the payment of any amount, under or with respect to such Securities.  All notices and communications to be given to the Securityholders and all payments to be made to Securityholders under the Securities and this Indenture shall be given or made only to or upon the order of the registered holders (which shall be the Depositary or its nominee in the case of the Global Security).  The rights of beneficial owners in the Global Security shall be exercised only through the Depositary subject to the applicable procedures.  The Trustee, the Security Registrar and any paying agent shall be entitled to rely and shall be fully protected in relying upon information furnished by the Depositary with respect to its members, participants and any beneficial owners.  The Trustee, the Security Registrar and any paying agent shall be entitled to deal with any depositary (including the Depositary), and any nominee thereof, that is the registered holder of any Global Security for all purposes of this Indenture relating to such Global Security (including the payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest and additional amounts, if any, and the giving of instructions or directions by or to the owner or holder of a beneficial ownership interest in such Global Security) as the sole holder of such Global Security and shall have no obligations to the beneficial owners thereof.  None of the Trustee, the Security Registrar or any paying agent shall have any responsibility or liability for any acts or omissions of any such depositary with respect to such Global Security, for the records of any such depositary, including records in respect of beneficial ownership interests in respect of any such Global Security, for any transactions between such depositary and any participant in such depositary or between or among any such depositary, any such participant and/or any holder or owner of a beneficial interest in such Global Security, or for any transfers of beneficial interests in any such Global Security.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any Global Security, nothing herein shall prevent the Company, the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent, or any other agent of the Company or any agent of the Trustee, from giving effect to any written certification, proxy or other authorization furnished by any depositary (including the Depositary), as a Securityholder, with respect to such Global Security or impair, as between such depositary and owners of beneficial interests in such Global Security, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of such depositary (or its nominee) as Holder of such Global Security.

 

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ARTICLE III
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 3.01  REDEMPTION.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

SECTION 3.02  NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

 

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall (upon five Business Days prior notice to the Trustee, unless a shorter notice period shall be acceptable to the Trustee), or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to Holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such Holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed.  Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered Holder receives the notice.  In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the Holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series.  In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.  Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in [_____________], upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case.  If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the Holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.  In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part.  The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by its President or any Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent as it may deem advisable.  In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

SECTION 3.03  PAYMENT UPON REDEMPTION.

 

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof.  On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered Holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

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SECTION 3.04  SINKING FUND.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.  The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”.  If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05.  Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

SECTION 3.05  SATISFACTION OF SINKING FUND PAYMENTS WITH SECURITIES.

 

The Company,

 

(1) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and

 

(2) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited.  Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

SECTION 3.06  REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES FOR SINKING FUND.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered.  Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02.  Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

ARTICLE IV
COVENANTS

 

SECTION 4.01  PAYMENT OF PRINCIPAL, PREMIUM AND INTEREST.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of each series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

 

SECTION 4.02  MAINTENANCE OF OFFICE OR AGENCY.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in [____________], with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its President or a Vice President and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency in [_____________] for such purposes or any of them.  If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.

 

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The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of one or more series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in [____________] for Securities of any series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

 

SECTION 4.03  PAYING AGENTS.

 

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action.  Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary,

 

(1) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and

 

(2) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by any paying agent to the Trustee, such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

SECTION 4.04  APPOINTMENT TO FILL VACANCY IN OFFICE OF TRUSTEE.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.11, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

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SECTION 4.05  COMPLIANCE WITH CONSOLIDATION PROVISIONS.

 

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of its property as an entirety or substantially as an entirety to any other Person unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.

 

SECTION 4.06  STATEMENT BY OFFICERS AS TO DEFAULT.

 

The Company will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate, stating whether or not to the best knowledge of the signer thereof the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Company shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which such signer may have knowledge.

 

ARTICLE V
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 5.01  COMPANY TO FURNISH TRUSTEE NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee:

 

(1) not more than 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the Holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company; and

 

(2) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 5.02  PRESERVATION OF INFORMATION; COMMUNICATIONS WITH SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of Holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.

 

SECTION 5.03  REPORTS BY THE COMPANY.

 

(a) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company has filed the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations.

 

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(b) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

(c) The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable overnight delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

 

(d) Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its respective covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates, except as otherwise provided herein).

 

SECTION 5.04  REPORTS BY THE TRUSTEE.

 

(a) On or before July 15 in each year in which any of the Securities are Outstanding, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of the preceding May 15, if and to the extent required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission.  The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any stock exchange.

 

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ARTICLE VI
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

SECTION 6.01 EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

 

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law

 

(i) commences a voluntary case,

 

(ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

(iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that

 

(i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

 

(ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

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(b) In each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable, notwithstanding anything contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of that series or established with respect to that series pursuant to Section 2.01 to the contrary.

 

(c) At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

 

(i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.07, and

 

(ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06. No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

SECTION 6.02 COLLECTION OF INDEBTEDNESS AND SUITS FOR ENFORCEMENT BY TRUSTEE.

 

(a) The Company covenants that

 

(i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or

 

(ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration, pursuant to any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.07.

 

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(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the Holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.07; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the Holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.07.

 

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.07, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series. In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

SECTION 6.03 APPLICATION OF MONEYS COLLECTED.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities and any money or other property distributable in respect of the company’s obligations under this Indenture after an Event of Default shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee (including any predecessor Trustee) under Section 7.07; and

 

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SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.

 

SECTION 6.04 LIMITATION ON SUITS.

 

No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

 

(1) such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided;

 

(2) the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder;

 

(3) such Holder or Holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and

 

(4) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and

 

(5) during such 60 day period, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and Holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the Holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

SECTION 6.05 RIGHTS AND REMEDIES CUMULATIVE; DELAY OR OMISSION NOT WAIVER.

 

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the Holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

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SECTION 6.06 CONTROL BY SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of Holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.01. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)) or in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which under Article IX cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected. Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

SECTION 6.07 UNDERTAKING TO PAY COSTS.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Securities by such Holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE VII
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 7.01 CERTAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRUSTEE.

 

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred: the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;

 

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(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

(iv) this Subsection shall not be construed to limit the effect of Subsection (c) of this Section 7.01.

 

(c) None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

 

(d) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of or be charged with having knowledge of any Default or Event of Default with respect to any series of Securities, except Events of Default under Section 6.01(a)(1) or (a)(2), if and so long as it is acting as paying agent with respect to the Securities of such series, unless written notice of such Default Event or Event of Default, as the case may be, is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee from the Company or any Holder of Securities of such series, and such notice references the Securities and this Indenture.

 

(e) Whether or not expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section 7.01.

 

SECTION 7.02 NOTICE OF DEFAULTS.

 

If a Default occurs hereunder with respect to Securities of any series and is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall give the Holders of Securities of such series notice of such Default as and to the extent provided by the Trust Indenture Act; provided, however, that in the case of any Default of the character specified in clause (3) of Section 6.01(a) with respect to Securities of such series, no such notice to Holders shall be given until at least 30 days after the occurrence thereof.

 

SECTION 7.03 CERTAIN RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by the President or any Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer thereof (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

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(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived) to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;

 

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents; and

 

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

(h) whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, conclusively rely upon an Officers’ Certificate;

 

(i) the rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder;

 

(j) the Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture;

 

(k) the permissive right of the Trustee to take or refrain from taking any actions enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty;

 

(l) anything in this Indenture notwithstanding, in no event shall the Trustee be liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including but not limited to loss of profit), even if the Company or Guarantor has been advised as to the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action;

 

(m) the Trustee shall not be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations under this Indenture arising out of or caused, directly or indirectly, by circumstances beyond its reasonable control, including, without limitation, acts of God; earthquakes; fire; flood; terrorism; wars and other military disturbances; sabotage; epidemics; riots; interruptions; loss or malfunctions of utilities, computer (hardware or software) or communication services; accidents; labor disputes; acts of civil or military authority and governmental action.

 

SECTION 7.04 TRUSTEE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR RECITALS OR ISSUANCE OR SECURITIES.

 

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

 

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

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(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

SECTION 7.05 MAY HOLD SECURITIES.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 7.06 MONEYS HELD IN TRUST.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

SECTION 7.07 COMPENSATION AND REIMBURSEMENT.

 

(a) The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust), as the Company, and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its gross negligence or willful misconduct. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, damage, claims liability or expense incurred without gross negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim whether asserted by the Company, any Securityholder or any other Person or liability including the compensation and expense of counsel in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder.

 

(b) The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities.

 

(c) To the extent permitted by law, any compensation due or expense incurred by the Trustee after a default specified in or pursuant to Section 6.01 is intended to constitute an expense of administration under any then applicable bankruptcy or insolvency law. “Trustee” for purposes of this Section 7.07 shall include any predecessor Trustee but the negligence or bad faith of any Trustee shall not affect the rights of any other Trustee under this Section 7.07.

 

(d) The provisions of this Section 7.07 shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the termination of this Indenture for any reason, or the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee and shall apply with equal force and effect to the Trustee in its capacity as Authenticating Agent, Security Registrar or paying agent.

 

SECTION 7.08 RELIANCE ON OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warranty to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

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SECTION 7.09 DISQUALIFICATION; CONFLICTING INTERESTS.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, subject to the penultimate paragraph thereof. For purposes of Section 310(b)(i) of the Trust Indenture Act and to the extent permitted thereby, the Trustee, in its capacity as trustee in respect of the Securities of any series, shall not be deemed to have a conflicting interest arising from its capacity as trustee in respect of the Securities of any other series.

 

SECTION 7.10 CORPORATE TRUSTEE REQUIRED; ELIGIBILITY.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any State or Territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.11.

 

SECTION 7.11 RESIGNATION AND REMOVAL; APPOINTMENT OF SUCCESSOR.

 

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.09 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.10 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation,

 

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then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, unless, in the case of a failure to comply with Section 7.09, the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed as provided in the penultimate paragraph of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that Holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c) The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.12.

 

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

SECTION 7.12 ACCEPTANCE OF APPOINTMENT BY SUCCESSOR.

 

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder, subject nevertheless to the lien provided for in Section 7.07.

 

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which

 

(i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates,

 

(ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and

 

(iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, subject nevertheless to the lien provided for in Section 7.07.

 

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(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

SECTION 7.13 MERGER, CONVERSION, CONSOLIDATION OR SUCCESSION TO BUSINESS.

 

Any Person into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any Person resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any Person succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such Person shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.09 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.10, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

SECTION 7.14 PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST THE COMPANY.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

ARTICLE VIII
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

SECTION 8.01 EVIDENCE OF ACTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the Holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the Holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such Holders of Securities of that series in Person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing. If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

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SECTION 8.02 PROOF OF EXECUTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

(c) The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

SECTION 8.03 WHO MAY BE DEEMED OWNERS.

 

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of (and premium, if any) and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

SECTION 8.04 CERTAIN SECURITIES OWNED BY COMPANY DISREGARDED.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 8.05 ACTIONS BINDING ON FUTURE SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the Holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

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ARTICLE IX
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

SECTION 9.01 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(1) to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein, in the Securities of any series;

 

(2) to comply with Article X;

 

(3) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

(4) to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company or to add any additional Events of Default for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such additional Events of Default are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such additional Events of Default are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series);

 

(5) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities (prior to the issuance thereof), as herein set forth;

 

(6) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

 

(7) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the Holders of any series of Securities; or

 

(8) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 7.12.

 

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

 

SECTION 9.02 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITH CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS.

 

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the Holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby:

 

(1) change the maturity of the principal of, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof or the rate of interest thereon or any premium payable upon the redemption thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security or any other Security which would be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01 or change the coin or currency in which any Security or any premium or interest thereon is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption, on or after the redemption date), or

 

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(2) reduce the percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture, or the consent of whose Holders is required for any waiver of certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture, or

 

(3) modify any of the provisions of this Section or Section 6.06 relating to waivers of default, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby; provided, however, that this clause shall not be deemed to require the consent of any Holder with respect to changes in the references to “the Trustee” and concomitant changes in this Section, or the deletion of this proviso, in accordance with the requirements of Sections 7.12 and 9.01(8).

 

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or other provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series. It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

SECTION 9.03 EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES.

 

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the Holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

SECTION 9.04 SECURITIES AFFECTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES.

 

Securities of any series, affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Company, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

SECTION 9.05 EXECUTION OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES.

 

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of any requisite consents of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall be entitled to receive an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by, and conforms to, the terms of this Article and that it is proper for the Trustee under the provisions of this Article to join in the execution thereof.

 

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Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Company shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Company to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

ARTICLE X
SUCCESSOR ENTITY

 

SECTION 10.01 COMPANY MAY CONSOLIDATE, ETC.

 

Nothing contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors) authorized to acquire and operate the same; provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction), sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, the due and punctual payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture or established with respect to each series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.

 

SECTION 10.02 SUCCESSOR ENTITY SUBSTITUTED.

 

(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by any successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee of the due and punctual payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding and the due and punctual performance of all of the covenants and conditions of this Indenture or established with respect to each series of the Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 to be performed by the Company, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation, except in the case of a lease, shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

 

SECTION 10.03 EVIDENCE OF CONSOLIDATION, ETC. TO TRUSTEE.

 

The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall be entitled to receive an Opinion of Counsel and an Officers’ Certificate as conclusive evidence that any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, and any such assumption, comply with the provisions of this Article.

 

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ARTICLE XI
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

 

SECTION 11.01 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE.

 

This Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect with respect to a series of Securities (except as to any surviving rights of registration of transfer or exchange of such series of Securities herein expressly provided for), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to such series, when:

 

(1) either (A) all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than (i) any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and (ii) Securities for whose payment money or noncallable Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or (B) all Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (i) have become due and payable, or (ii) will by their terms become due and payable within one year, or (iii) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose (x) moneys in an amount, or (y) noncallable Governmental Obligations the scheduled principal of and interest on which in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (z) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the case of (y) or (z), in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, at maturity or upon redemption, all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be;

 

(2) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company; and

 

(3) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all the conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities have been complied with. Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to a series of Securities, the obligations of the Trustee under Section 7.07 and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (y) of clause (1) of this Section, the obligations of the Trustee under Sections 11.03 and 11.05 shall survive.

 

SECTION 11.02 DEFEASANCE.

 

The Company may, at its option and at any time (including notwithstanding the exercise by the Company of a Covenant Defeasance (as defined herein)), elect to have its obligations discharged with respect to a series of the Securities (“Legal Defeasance”). Such Legal Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by such series of Securities, except for (a) the rights of Holders to receive payments in respect of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities when such payments are due solely from the trust fund described in this Section, (b) the Company’s obligations with respect to such series of Securities concerning issuing temporary Securities, registration of transfer or exchange of such series of Securities, mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities of such series and the maintenance of an office or agency for payments, (c) the rights, powers, trust, duties and immunities of the Trustee and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith and (d) the Legal Defeasance provisions of this Indenture. In addition, the Company may, at its option and at any time, elect to have the obligations of the Company released with respect to covenants provided with respect to such series of Securities under Section 2.01(15), 9.01(4) and 9.01(7) of this Indenture (“Covenant Defeasance”) and thereafter any omission to comply with such obligations shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such series of Securities. In the event of Covenant Defeasance, those events described under Section 6.01(a) with respect to the foregoing covenants will no longer constitute an Event of Default with respect to such series of Securities.

 

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In order to exercise either Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance:

 

(1) the Company must irrevocably deposit with the Trustee, in trust, for the benefit of the Holders of such series, (A) moneys in an amount, or (B) noncallable Governmental Obligations the scheduled principal of and interest on which in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the case of (B) or (C), in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, at maturity or upon redemption, the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such series of Securities on the stated date for payment thereof or on the applicable redemption date, as the case may be;

 

(2) in the case of Legal Defeasance, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel confirming that (A) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of such series of Securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

 

(3) in the case of Covenant Defeasance, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel confirming that the Holders of such series of Securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

 

(4) no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or insofar as Events of Default under clauses (4) and (5) of Section 6.01(a) with respect to the Securities of such series are concerned, at any time in the period ending on the 91st day after the date of deposit;

 

(5) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for or relating to the Legal Defeasance or the Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with; and

 

(6) if such series of Securities are to be redeemed prior to final maturity (other than from mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments), notice of such redemption shall have been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made.

 

SECTION 11.03 DEPOSITED MONEYS TO BE HELD IN TRUST.

 

All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

 

SECTION 11.04 PAYMENT OF MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENTS.

 

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

 

SECTION 11.05 REPAYMENT TO COMPANY.

 

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the Holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Company on May 31 of each year or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the Holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

 

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ARTICLE XII
IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

 

SECTION 12.01 NO RECOURSE.

 

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

ARTICLE XIII
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 13.01 EFFECT ON SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS.

 

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture contained by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

SECTION 13.02 ACTIONS BY SUCCESSOR.

 

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

 

SECTION 13.03 SURRENDER OF COMPANY POWERS.

 

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

 

SECTION 13.04 NOTICES.

 

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein, any notice or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited first class postage prepaid in a post-office letterbox addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: 2488 Historic Decatur Road, San Diego, California 92106. Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

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SECTION 13.05 GOVERNING LAW; WAIVER OF TRIAL BY JURY.

 

This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of said State.

 

EACH PARTY HERETO, AND EACH HOLDER OF A SECURITY BY ACCEPTANCE THEREOF, HEREBY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY RIGHT IT MAY HAVE TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN RESPECT OF ANY LITIGATION RELATING TO THE TRUSTEE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ARISING OUT OF, UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS INDENTURE.

 

SECTION 13.06 TREATMENT OF SECURITIES AS DEBT.

 

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

 

SECTION 13.07 COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATES AND OPINIONS.

 

(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture shall include

 

(i) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

 

(ii) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(iii) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(iv) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

SECTION 13.08 PAYMENTS ON BUSINESS DAYS.

 

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01, by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

 

SECTION 13.09 CONFLICT WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

 

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

 

34

 

 

SECTION 13.10 COUNTERPARTS.

 

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

 

SECTION 13.11 SEPARABILITY.

 

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

 

SECTION 13.12 ASSIGNMENT.

 

The Company will have the right at all times to assign any of its rights or obligations under this Indenture to a direct or indirect wholly-owned Subsidiary of the Company, provided that, in the event of any such assignment, the Company, will remain liable for all such obligations. Subject to the foregoing, the Indenture is binding upon and inures to the benefit of the parties thereto and their respective successors and assigns. This Indenture may not otherwise be assigned by the parties thereto.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

  NUVVE HOLDING CORP.
     
  By:                      
  Name:  
  Title:  
     
  _______________, as Trustee
     
  By:  
  Name:  
  Title:  

 

 

35

 

 

Exhibit 4.10

 

 

 

 

 

 

NUVVE HOLDING CORP.,

As Issuer,

 

AND

 

_______________,

As Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

DATED AS OF [__________] [___], 20[__]

 

SUBORDINATED DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended   Indenture
310(a)   7.10
310(b)   7.09; 7.11
310(c)   Inapplicable
311(a)   7.14
311(b)   7.14
311(c)   Inapplicable
312(a)   5.02(a)
312(b)   5.02(c)
312(c)   Inapplicable
313(a)   5.04(a)
313(b)   5.04(b)
313(c)   5.04(a); 5.04(b)
313(d)   5.04(c)
314(a)   5.03; 4.06
314(b)   Inapplicable
314(c)   13.07
314(d)   Inapplicable
314(e)   13.07
314(f)   Inapplicable
315(a)   7.01(a); 7.03
315(b)   7.02
315(c)   7.01
315(d)   7.01(b)
315(e)   6.07; 7.07
316(a)   6.06; 8.04
316(b)   6.04
316(c)   8.01
317(a)   6.02
317(b)   4.03
318(a)   13.09

 

 

(1)This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)

 

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS 1
   
SECTION 1.01 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS. 1
     
ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 4
   
SECTION 2.01 DESIGNATION AND TERMS OF SECURITIES. 4
SECTION 2.02 FORM OF SECURITIES AND TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE. 6
SECTION 2.03 DENOMINATIONS: PROVISIONS FOR PAYMENT. 7
SECTION 2.04 EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION. 7
SECTION 2.05 REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE. 8
SECTION 2.06 TEMPORARY SECURITIES. 8
SECTION 2.07 MUTILATED, DESTROYED, LOST OR STOLEN SECURITIES. 9
SECTION 2.08 CANCELLATION. 9
SECTION 2.09 BENEFITS OF INDENTURE. 9
SECTION 2.10 AUTHENTICATING AGENT. 10
SECTION 2.11 GLOBAL SECURITIES. 10
     
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 12
   
SECTION 3.01 REDEMPTION. 12
SECTION 3.02 NOTICE OF REDEMPTION. 12
SECTION 3.03 PAYMENT UPON REDEMPTION. 12
SECTION 3.04 SINKING FUND. 13
SECTION 3.05 SATISFACTION OF SINKING FUND PAYMENTS WITH SECURITIES. 13
SECTION 3.06 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES FOR SINKING FUND. 13
     
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 13
     
SECTION 4.01 PAYMENT OF PRINCIPAL, PREMIUM AND INTEREST. 13
SECTION 4.02 MAINTENANCE OF OFFICE OR AGENCY. 14
SECTION 4.03 PAYING AGENTS. 14
SECTION 4.04 APPOINTMENT TO FILL VACANCY IN OFFICE OF TRUSTEE. 15
SECTION 4.05 COMPLIANCE WITH CONSOLIDATION PROVISIONS. 15
SECTION 4.06 STATEMENT BY OFFICERS AS TO DEFAULT. 15
     
ARTICLE V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 15
     
SECTION 5.01 COMPANY TO FURNISH TRUSTEE NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF SECURITYHOLDERS. 15
SECTION 5.02 PRESERVATION OF INFORMATION; COMMUNICATIONS WITH SECURITYHOLDERS. 15
SECTION 5.03 REPORTS BY THE COMPANY. 16
SECTION 5.04 REPORTS BY THE TRUSTEE. 16
     
ARTICLE VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 16
     
SECTION 6.01 EVENTS OF DEFAULT. 16
SECTION 6.02 COLLECTION OF INDEBTEDNESS AND SUITS FOR ENFORCEMENT BY TRUSTEE. 18
SECTION 6.03 APPLICATION OF MONEYS COLLECTED. 19
SECTION 6.04 LIMITATION ON SUITS. 19
SECTION 6.05 RIGHTS AND REMEDIES CUMULATIVE; DELAY OR OMISSION NOT WAIVER. 20
SECTION 6.06 CONTROL BY SECURITYHOLDERS. 20
SECTION 6.07 UNDERTAKING TO PAY COSTS. 20
     
ARTICLE VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 21
     
SECTION 7.01 CERTAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRUSTEE. 21
SECTION 7.02 NOTICE OF DEFAULTS. 22
SECTION 7.03 CERTAIN RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE. 22
SECTION 7.04 TRUSTEE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR RECITALS OR ISSUANCE OR SECURITIES. 23
SECTION 7.05 MAY HOLD SECURITIES. 23
SECTION 7.06 MONEYS HELD IN TRUST. 23

 

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SECTION 7.07 COMPENSATION AND REIMBURSEMENT. 23
SECTION 7.08 RELIANCE ON OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE. 24
SECTION 7.09 DISQUALIFICATION; CONFLICTING INTERESTS. 24
SECTION 7.10 CORPORATE TRUSTEE REQUIRED; ELIGIBILITY. 24
SECTION 7.11 RESIGNATION AND REMOVAL; APPOINTMENT OF SUCCESSOR. 25
SECTION 7.12 ACCEPTANCE OF APPOINTMENT BY SUCCESSOR. 25
SECTION 7.13 MERGER, CONVERSION, CONSOLIDATION OR SUCCESSION TO BUSINESS. 26
SECTION 7.14 PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST THE COMPANY. 27
     
ARTICLE VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 27
     
SECTION 8.01 EVIDENCE OF ACTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS. 27
SECTION 8.02 PROOF OF EXECUTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS. 27
SECTION 8.03 WHO MAY BE DEEMED OWNERS. 27
SECTION 8.04 CERTAIN SECURITIES OWNED BY COMPANY DISREGARDED. 28
SECTION 8.05 ACTIONS BINDING ON FUTURE SECURITYHOLDERS. 28
     
ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 28
     
SECTION 9.01 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS. 28
SECTION 9.02 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITH CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS. 29
SECTION 9.03 EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES. 30
SECTION 9.04 SECURITIES AFFECTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES. 30
SECTION 9.05 EXECUTION OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES. 30
     
ARTICLE X SUCCESSOR ENTITY 30
     
SECTION 10.01 COMPANY MAY CONSOLIDATE, ETC. 30
SECTION 10.02 SUCCESSOR ENTITY SUBSTITUTED. 31
SECTION 10.03 EVIDENCE OF CONSOLIDATION, ETC. TO TRUSTEE. 31
     
ARTICLE XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 31
     
SECTION 11.01 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE. 31
SECTION 11.02 DEFEASANCE. 32
SECTION 11.03 DEPOSITED MONEYS TO BE HELD IN TRUST. 33
SECTION 11.04 PAYMENT OF MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENTS. 33
SECTION 11.05 REPAYMENT TO COMPANY. 33
     
ARTICLE XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 33
     
SECTION 12.01 NO RECOURSE. 33
     
ARTICLE XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 34
     
SECTION 13.01 EFFECT ON SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS. 34
SECTION 13.02 ACTIONS BY SUCCESSOR. 34
SECTION 13.03 SURRENDER OF COMPANY POWERS. 34
SECTION 13.04 NOTICES. 34
SECTION 13.05 GOVERNING LAW; WAIVER OF TRIAL BY JURY. 34
SECTION 13.06 TREATMENT OF SECURITIES AS DEBT. 34
SECTION 13.07 COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATES AND OPINIONS. 34
SECTION 13.08 PAYMENTS ON BUSINESS DAYS. 35
SECTION 13.09 CONFLICT WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT. 35
SECTION 13.10 COUNTERPARTS. 35
SECTION 13.11 SEPARABILITY. 35
SECTION 13.12 ASSIGNMENT. 35
     
ARTICLE XIV SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES 35
     
SECTION 14.01 SUBORDINATION TERMS. 35

 

 

(2)This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

iii

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [__________] [___], 20[__], between Nuvve Holding Corp., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [_____________], a [_____________], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of subordinated debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as provided in this Indenture, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of Securities or of series thereof.

 

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS

 

SECTION 1.01 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act, or that are by reference in said Trust Indenture Act defined in the Securities Act (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

“ARTICLE”, “SECTION” or other subdivisions refer to Articles, Sections or other subdivisions of this Indenture.

 

“AUTHENTICATING AGENT” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

“BANKRUPTCY LAW” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

“BOARD OF DIRECTORS” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

“BOARD RESOLUTION” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

“BUSINESS DAY” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a Saturday or Sunday, or a day on which federal or state banking institutions in [________], are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

“CERTIFICATE” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

“COMMISSION” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

1

 

 

“COMPANY” means Nuvve Holding Corp., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article X, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

“CORPORATE TRUST OFFICE” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [________________________________].

 

“COVENANT DEFEASANCE” has the meaning given in Section 11.02.

 

“CUSTODIAN” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

“DEFAULT” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

“DEFAULTED INTEREST” has the meaning given in Section 2.03.

 

“DEPOSITARY” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, [________], another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

“EVENT OF DEFAULT” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

“EXCHANGE ACT” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or any successor statute or statutes thereto.

 

“GLOBAL SECURITY” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

“GOVERNMENTAL OBLIGATIONS” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the Holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the Holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“HEREIN”, “HEREOF” and “HEREUNDER”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

“INCLUDING”, unless the context requires otherwise, means including without limitation.

 

“INDENTURE” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof, including, for all purposes of this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be a part of and govern this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, respectively. The term “Indenture” shall also include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

“INTEREST PAYMENT DATE”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

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“LEGAL DEFEASANCE” has the meaning given in Section 11.02.

 

“OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“OPINION OF COUNSEL” means an opinion in writing of legal counsel acceptable to the Trustee, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT SECURITY” means any Security which provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01.

 

“OUTSTANDING”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III; or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07; provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given, made or taken any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action hereunder as of any date, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof which would be due and payable as of such date upon acceleration of the maturity thereof to such date pursuant to Section 6.01.

 

“PERSON” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, joint-stock company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“PREDECESSOR SECURITY” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

“RESPONSIBLE OFFICER” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer assigned to the [________________] [Division / Unit] (or any successor division or unit) of the Trustee located at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture, and for the purposes of Section 7.01(b)(ii) and Section 315(b) of the Trust Indenture Act shall also include any other officer of the Trustee to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“SECURITIES” means the debt securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“SECURITIES ACT” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or any successor statute or statutes thereto.

 

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“SECURITYHOLDER”, “HOLDER of SECURITIES”, “REGISTERED HOLDER”, “HOLDER”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered on the books of the Company kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

“SECURITY REGISTER” has the meaning given in Section 2.05.

 

“SECURITY REGISTRAR” has the meaning given in Section 2.05.

 

“SENIOR INDEBTEDNESS” means the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest (including any interest accruing subsequent to the filing of a petition of bankruptcy at the rate provided for in the documentation with respect thereto, whether or not such interest is an allowed claim under applicable law) on any indebtedness of the Company, incurred or assumed, unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, the instrument creating or evidencing the same or pursuant to which the same is outstanding expressly provides that such indebtedness shall not be senior in right of payment to the Securities. Notwithstanding the foregoing, “SENIOR INDEBTEDNESS” shall not include (i) any indebtedness of the Company to a Subsidiary of the Company or any Affiliate of the Company or any of such Affiliate’s Subsidiaries, (ii) indebtedness to, or guaranteed on behalf of, any shareholder, director, officer or employee of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company (including, without limitation, amounts owed for compensation), (iii) indebtedness to trade creditors and other amounts incurred in connection with obtaining goods, materials or services, (iv) any liability for federal, state, local or other taxes owed or owing by the Company, (v) that portion of any indebtedness incurred in violation of an incurrence test applicable to a series of the Securities, (vi) that portion of any indebtedness which, when incurred and without respect to any election under Section 1111(b) of Title 11, United States Code, is without recourse to the Company and (vii) that portion of any indebtedness which is, by its express terms, subordinated in right of payment to the Securities.

 

“SUBSIDIARY” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

“TRUSTEE” means [_____________] and, subject to the provisions of Article VII, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

“TRUST INDENTURE ACT” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument.

 

“VOTING STOCK”, as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

ARTICLE II

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

SECTION 2.01 DESIGNATION AND TERMS OF SECURITIES.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount, if any, of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

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(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable, any original issue discount that may apply to the Securities of that series upon their issuance, the principal amount due at maturity and the place(s) of payment;

 

(4) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(5) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date or other method for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates;

 

(6) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of such extension;

 

(7) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(9) any additional or different subordination terms applicable to the Securities of the series;

 

(10) the form of the Securities of the series, including the form of the Trustee’s certificate of authentication for such series;

 

(11) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable (including denominations of foreign currency);

 

(12) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture);

 

(13) whether the Securities of the series are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series and any other or different terms in respect of such Global Security;

 

(14) whether the Securities of the series will be convertible into shares of common stock o