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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(MARK ONE)
x QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023
or
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________ to _________
Commission file number: 001-40296
NUVVE HOLDING CORP.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware86-1617000
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2468 Historic Decatur Road, San Diego,California92106
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
 (619)456-5161
(Registrant’s telephone number), including area code
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolsName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareNVVEThe Nasdaq Stock Market
Warrants to Purchase Common StockNVVEWThe Nasdaq Stock Market
Check whether the issuer (1) filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the past 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
xYes   o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
x Yes   o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated fileroAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated filerxSmaller reporting companyx
Emerging growth companyx
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
o Yes   x No
As of August 3, 2023, 32,211,991 shares of the issuer’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, were issued and outstanding.




NUVVE HOLDING CORP.
FORM 10-Q FOR THE QUARTER ENDED June 30, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS


i


Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and other documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements that are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about us, our future performance, our financial condition, our products, our business strategy, our beliefs and our management’s assumptions. In addition, we, or others on our behalf, may make forward-looking statements in press releases or written statements, or in our communications and discussions with investors and analysts in the normal course of business through meetings, webcasts, phone calls and conference calls. These forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words like “anticipates,” “estimates,” “projects,” “expects,” “plans,” “believes,” “intends,” “will,” “could,” “may,” “assumes” and other words of similar meaning. These statements are based on management’s beliefs, assumptions, estimates and observations of future events based on information available to our management at the time the statements are made and include any statements that do not relate to any historical or current fact. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and they involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed, implied or forecast by our forward-looking statements due in part to the risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, as well as those discussed elsewhere in this report and other factors described from time to time in our filings with the SEC.

Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include, (i) risks related to the rollout of Nuvve's business and the timing of expected business milestones; (ii) Nuvve's dependence on widespread acceptance and adoption of electric vehicles and increased installation of charging stations; (iii) Nuvve's ability to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, including the remediation of identified material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting relating to segregation of duties with respect to, and access controls to, its financial record keeping system, and Nuvve's accounting staffing levels; (iv) Nuvve's current dependence on sales of charging stations for most of its revenues; (v) overall demand for electric vehicle charging and the potential for reduced demand if governmental rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives are reduced, modified or eliminated or governmental mandates to increase the use of electric vehicles or decrease the use of vehicles powered by fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly through mandated limits on carbon emissions, are reduced, modified or eliminated; (vi) potential adverse effects on Nuvve's backlog, revenue and gross margins if customers increasingly claim clean energy credits and, as a result, they are no longer available to be claimed by Nuvve; (vii) the effects of competition on Nuvve's future business; (viii) risks related to Nuvve's dependence on its intellectual property and the risk that Nuvve's technology could have undetected defects or errors; (ix) the risk that we conduct a portion of our operations through a joint venture exposes us to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control; (x) that our joint venture with Levo Mobility LLC may fail to generate the expected financial results, and the return may be insufficient to justify our investment of effort and/or funds; (xi) changes in applicable laws or regulations; (xii) the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect directly on Nuvve and the economy generally; (xiii) risks related to disruption of management time from ongoing business operations due to our joint ventures; (xiv) risks relating to privacy and data protection laws, privacy or data breaches, or the loss of data; (xv) the possibility that Nuvve may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors; and (xvi) risks related to the benefits expected from the $1.2 trillion dollar infrastructure bill passed by the U.S. House of Representatives (H.R. 3684), as well as other risks described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and other factors described from time to time in our filings with the SEC.

Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not rely on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. Any or all of the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and any other public statement made by us, including by our management, may turn out to be incorrect. We are including this cautionary note to make applicable and take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for forward-looking statements. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, changes in assumptions or otherwise, except as required under federal securities laws and the rules and regulations of the SEC.
ii


PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.    Interim Financial Statements.
NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets 
Current assets
Cash$11,059,004 $15,753,896 
Restricted cash480,000 480,000 
Accounts receivable, net2,027,621 1,121,694 
Inventories8,939,296 11,551,831 
Prepaid expenses 1,556,991 1,487,582 
Other current assets1,139,212 1,454,563 
Total current assets25,202,124  31,849,566 
Property and equipment, net652,658 636,944 
Intangible assets, net1,271,921 1,341,640 
Investment in equity securities670,951 1,670,951 
Investment in leases117,436 97,054 
Right-of-use operating lease assets5,076,837 5,305,881 
Financing receivables288,872 288,872 
Security deposit, long-term8,682 8,682 
Total assets$33,289,481 $41,199,590 
Liabilities, Mezzanine Equity and Stockholders’ Equity 
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$796,435 $2,390,422 
Due to customers2,980,318  
Accrued expenses4,214,358 3,347,399 
Deferred revenue1,103,058 1,221,497 
Operating lease liabilities - current856,635 824,326 
Other liabilities112,721 113,844 
Total current liabilities10,063,525 7,897,488 
Operating lease liabilities - noncurrent4,867,157 5,090,170 
Warrants liability290,848 220,884 
Derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares353,006 359,225 
Other long-term liabilities538,563 393,179 
Total liabilities16,113,099 13,960,946 
Commitments and Contingencies
Mezzanine equity
Redeemable non-controlling interests, preferred shares, zero par value, 1,000,000 shares authorized, 3,138 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022; aggregate liquidation preference of $3,604,576 and $3,464,606 at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
3,870,697 3,547,765 
Class D Incentive units, zero par value, 1,000,000 units authorized; 50,000 and 250,000 units issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
153,778 445,479 
Stockholders’ equity 
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 1,000,000 shares authorized; zero shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
  
Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 100,000,000 shares authorized; 31,257,041 and 24,272,150 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
3,126 2,427 
Additional paid-in capital150,076,184 144,073,505 
Accumulated other comprehensive income86,415 76,182 
Accumulated deficit(132,615,484)(116,956,528)
Nuvve Holding Corp. Stockholders’ Equity 17,550,241 27,195,586 
Non-controlling interests(4,398,334)(3,950,186)
Total stockholders’ equity 13,151,907 23,245,400 
Total Liabilities, Mezzanine Equity and Stockholders’ Equity $33,289,481 $41,199,590 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
1


NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Revenue    
Products and services$2,049,009 $1,068,029 $3,829,394 $3,321,813 
Grants71,118 233,698 145,519 350,947 
Total revenue2,120,127 1,301,727 3,974,913 3,672,760 
Operating expenses
Cost of product and service revenue1,951,116 1,034,596 3,412,020 3,176,908 
Selling, general, and administrative6,097,336 8,136,522 12,269,360 15,762,072 
Research and development2,387,215 2,170,139 4,487,303 4,305,714 
Total operating expenses10,435,667 11,341,257 20,168,683 23,244,694 
Operating loss(8,315,540)(10,039,530)(16,193,770)(19,571,934)
Other income (expense) 
Interest income, net20,644 6,945 88,981 8,403 
Change in fair value of warrants liability143,794 4,585,000 (69,964)9,361,000 
Change in fair value of derivative liability83,059 (32,536)6,219 20,936 
Other, net83,946 22,020 524,332 (7,767)
Total other income, net331,443 4,581,429 549,568 9,382,572 
Loss before taxes(7,984,097)(5,458,101)(15,644,202)(10,189,362)
Income tax expense      
Net loss$(7,984,097)$(5,458,101)$(15,644,202)$(10,189,362)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests8,466 (189,945)14,754 (290,878)
Net loss attributable to Nuvve Holding Corp.$(7,992,563)$(5,268,156)$(15,658,956)$(9,898,484)
Less: Preferred dividends on redeemable non-controlling interests70,678 65,296 139,970 129,311 
Less: Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests preferred shares161,466 161,466 322,932 322,932 
Net loss attributable to Nuvve Holding Corp. common stockholders$(8,224,707)$(5,494,918)$(16,121,858)$(10,350,727)
Net loss per share attributable to Nuvve Holding Corp. common stockholders, basic and diluted$(0.30)$(0.29)$(0.62)$(0.55)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to Nuvve Holding Corp. common stockholders, basic and diluted27,734,130 19,064,854 26,129,789 18,965,167 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
2


NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
    
Net loss $(7,984,097)$(5,458,101)$(15,644,202)$(10,189,362)
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of taxes
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of taxes1,299 (26,314)10,233 (39,998)
Total Comprehensive loss $(7,982,798)$(5,484,415)$(15,633,969)$(10,229,360)
Less: Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests8,466 (189,945)14,754 (290,878)
Comprehensive loss attributable to Nuvve Holding Corp.$(7,991,264)$(5,294,470)$(15,648,723)$(9,938,482)
Less: Preferred dividends on redeemable non-controlling interests(70,678)(65,296)(139,970)(129,311)
Less: Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests preferred shares(161,466)(161,466)(322,932)(322,932)
Comprehensive loss attributable to Nuvve Holding Corp. common stockholders$(7,759,120)$(5,067,708)$(15,185,821)$(9,486,239)


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Accumulated
Deficit
Non-controlling InterestsTotal
SharesAmount
Balances December 31, 202224,272,150 $2,427 $144,073,505 $76,182 $(116,956,528)$(3,950,186)$23,245,400 
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock91,300 9 (9)— — —  
Stock-based compensation— — 1,414,183 — — — 1,414,183 
Currency translation adjustment— — — 8,934 — — 8,934 
Preferred dividends - non-controlling interest— — — — — (69,292)(69,292)
Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests preferred shares— — — — — (161,466)(161,466)
Proceeds from Direct Offering, net of offering costs543,478 54 469,946 — — — 470,000 
Proceeds from common stock offering, net of offering costs78,638 8 136,709 — — — 136,717 
Net loss— — — — (7,666,393)6,288 (7,660,105)
Balances March 31, 202324,985,566 2,498 146,094,334 85,116 (124,622,921)(4,174,656)17,384,371 
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock options624,400 62 391,129 — — — 391,191 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,069,188 — — — 1,069,188 
Proceeds from Direct Offering, net of offering costs4,310,711 432 1,876,760 — — — 1,877,192 
Proceeds from common stock offering, net of offering costs1,336,364 134 644,773 — — — 644,907 
Currency translation adjustment— — — 1,299 — — 1,299 
Preferred dividends - non-controlling interest— — — — — (70,678)(70,678)
Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests preferred shares— — — — — (161,466)(161,466)
Net loss— — — — (7,992,563)8,466 (7,984,097)
Balances June 30, 202331,257,041 $3,126 $150,076,184 $86,415 $(132,615,484)$(4,398,334)$13,151,907 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


4


NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (continued)
(Unaudited)

Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Accumulated
Deficit
Non-controlling InterestsTotal
SharesAmount
Balances December 31, 202118,861,130 $1,888 $122,336,607 $113,446 $(92,937,863)$(2,501,633)$27,012,445 
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock30,370 3 — — — — 3 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,455,641 — — — 1,455,641 
Currency translation adjustment— — — (13,684)— — (13,684)
Preferred dividends - non-controlling interest— — — — — (64,015)(64,015)
Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests preferred shares— — — — — (161,466)(161,466)
Net loss— — — — (4,630,328)(100,933)(4,731,261)
Balances March 31, 202218,891,500 1,891 123,792,248 99,762 (97,568,191)(2,828,047)23,497,663 
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock options360,018 50 173,575 — — — 173,625 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,640,055 — — — 1,640,055 
Proceeds from forward option put exercise134,499 13 1,994,059 — — — 1,994,072 
Proceeds from common stock offering, net of offering costs323,746 32 1,859,653 — — — 1,859,685 
Currency translation adjustment— — — (26,314)— — (26,314)
Preferred dividends - non-controlling interest— — — — — (65,296)(65,296)
Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests preferred shares— — — — — (161,466)(161,466)
Net loss— — — — (5,268,156)(189,945)(5,458,101)
Balances June 30, 202219,709,763 1,986 129,459,590 73,448 (102,836,347)(3,244,754)23,453,923 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
Six Months Ended June 30,
 20232022
Operating activities  
Net loss$(15,644,202)$(10,189,362)
Adjustments to reconcile to net loss to net cash used in operating activities
Depreciation and amortization156,290 137,755 
Stock-based compensation2,069,227 3,357,859 
Change in fair value of warrants liability69,964 (9,361,000)
Change in fair value of derivative liability(6,219)(20,936)
Gains from sale of investments in equity securities(325,155) 
Noncash lease expense233,730 283,251 
Change in operating assets and liabilities
Accounts receivable(903,652)(74,278)
Inventory2,612,535 322,156 
Prepaid expenses and other assets249,728 (1,462,221)
Accounts payable(1,595,737)(2,409,448)
Due to customers2,980,318  
Accrued expenses1,195,845 (684,517)
Deferred revenue(140,783)79,576 
Net cash used in operating activities(9,048,111)(20,021,165)
Investing activities
Purchase of property and equipment(101,775)(317,225)
Investments in equity securities (1,000,000)
Proceeds from sale of investments in equity securities1,325,155  
Net cash provided (used) in investing activities1,223,380 (1,317,225)
Financing activities
Proceeds from forward option put exercise 1,994,073 
Proceeds from Direct Offering of common stock, net of offering costs2,347,192  
Proceeds from common stock offering, net of offering costs781,624 1,859,685 
Payment of finance lease obligations(4,480)(4,425)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options 173,575 
Net cash provided in financing activities3,124,336 4,022,908 
Effect of exchange rate on cash5,503 (54,796)
Net decrease in cash and restricted cash(4,694,892)(17,370,278)
Cash and restricted cash at beginning of year16,233,896 32,740,520 
Cash and restricted cash at end of period$11,539,004 $15,370,242 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
6


NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (continued)
(Unaudited)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022
Supplemental Disclosure of Noncash Financing Activity
Transfer of inventory to property and equipment$ $87,095 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
7

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


Note 1 – Organization and Description of Business
Description of Business
Nuvve Holding Corp., a Delaware corporation headquartered in San Diego, California (the “Company” or “Nuvve”), was founded on November 10, 2020 under the laws of the state of Delaware. On March 19, 2021, the Company (at the time known as NB Merger Corp.) acquired the outstanding shares of Nuvve Corporation (“Nuvve Corp.”), and the Company changed its name to Nuvve Holding Corp.
Structure of the Company
Nuvve has two wholly owned subsidiaries, Nuvve Corp. and Nuvve Pennsylvania LLC. Nuvve Corp. has four wholly owned subsidiaries: (1) Nuvve Denmark ApS, (“Nuvve Denmark”), a company registered in Denmark, (2) Nuvve SaS, a company registered in France, (3) Nuvve KK (Nuvve Japan), a company registered in Japan, and (4) Nuvve LTD, a company registered in United Kingdom. Nuvve Norway, a company registered in Norway is a branch of Nuvve Denmark.
On August 4, 2021, the Company formed Levo Mobility LLC, a Delaware limited liability company ("Levo"), with Stonepeak Rocket Holdings LP, a Delaware limited partnership ("Stonepeak"), and Evolve Transition Infrastructure LP, a Delaware limited partnership ("Evolve"). Levo is a consolidated entity of the Company. Please see Note 2 for the principles of consolidation.
Levo is a sustainable infrastructure company focused on rapidly advancing the electrification of transportation by funding vehicle-to-grid ("V2G") enabled Electric Vehicle ("EV") fleet deployments. Levo utilizes Nuvve’s V2G technology and conditional capital contribution commitments from Stonepeak and Evolve to offer Fleet-as-a-Service ("FaaS") for school buses, last-mile delivery, ride hailing and ride sharing, municipal services, and more to eliminate the primary barriers to EV fleet adoption including large upfront capital investments and lack of expertise in securing and managing EVs and associated charging infrastructure.

Levo's turnkey solution simplifies and streamlines electrification, can lower the total cost of EV operation for fleet owners, and supports the grid when the EVs are not in use. For a fixed monthly payment with no upfront cost, Levo will provide the EVs, such as electric school buses, charging infrastructure powered by Nuvve’s V2G platform, EV and charging station maintenance, energy management, and technical advice.

Levo initially focuses on electrifying school buses, providing associated charging infrastructure, and delivering V2G services to enable safer and healthier transportation for children while supporting carbon dioxide emission reduction, renewable energy integration, and improved grid resiliency.
8

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)

Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
For a detailed discussion about the Company’s significant accounting policies, see Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 (the “2022 Form 10-K”).
During the six months ended June 30, 2023, there were no significant updates made to the Company’s significant accounting policies.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying (i) unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022, which has been derived from audited financial statements, and (ii) unaudited interim condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to those rules and regulations, although the Company believes that the disclosures made are adequate to make the information not misleading. Therefore, it is suggested that these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes in the 2022 Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2023.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss, cash flows, and stockholders’ equity for the interim periods, but are not necessarily indicative of the results to be anticipated for the full year 2023 or any future period.
In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern, the Company has evaluated whether there are conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are issued. Since inception, the Company has incurred recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations and has an accumulated deficit of $132.6 million as of June 30, 2023. Nuvve incurred operating losses of approximately $16.2 million as of the six months ended June 30, 2023, and $36.9 million and $27.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Nuvve cash used in operations were $9.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and $34.1 million and $29.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. As of June 30, 2023, Nuvve had a cash balance, working capital, and stockholders’ equity of $11.1 million, $15.1 million and $13.2 million, respectively. The Company continues to expect to generate operating losses and negative cash flows and may need additional funding to support its planned operating activities through profitability. The transition to profitability is dependent upon the successful expanded commercialization of the Company's Grid Integrated Vehicle ("GIVe") platform and the achievement of a level of revenues adequate to support its cost structure.
Management plans to fund current operations through increased revenues and if required cash saving measures and or raising additional capital. Management's expectations with respect to the Company’s ability to fund current planned operations is based on estimates that are subject to risks and uncertainties. There is an inherent risk that the Company may not achieve such financial projections and if so, cash outflows could be higher than currently anticipated. Should this occur, management plans to implement cash saving measures during this time period, including reductions in discretionary expenses related to consultants, travel, personnel, and personnel-related costs. If necessary, management believes it can raise additional capital through its at-the-market offering agreement. However, as such plans are not solely within management’s control management cannot conclude as of the date of this filing that the plans are probable of being successfully implemented and as such has concluded that substantial doubt exists about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for twelve months from the date of issuance of our financial statements.

The condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.



9

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)

Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts and operations of the Company, its wholly owned subsidiaries and its consolidated variable interest entity. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.

Variable Interest Entities

Pursuant to the consolidation guidance, the Company first evaluates whether it holds a variable interest in an entity in which it has a financial relationship and, if so, whether or not that entity is a variable interest entity ("VIE"). A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or in which equity investors lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. If an entity is determined to be a VIE, the Company evaluates whether the Company is the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary analysis is a qualitative analysis based on power and economics. The Company concludes that it is the primary beneficiary and consolidates the VIE if the Company has both (i) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly influence the VIE's economic performance, and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses of, or the right to receive benefits from, the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.

The Company formed Levo with Stonepeak and Evolve, in which the Company owns 51% of Levo's common units. The Company has determined that Levo is a VIE in which the Company is the primary beneficiary. Accordingly, the Company consolidates Levo and records a non-controlling interest for the share of the entity owned by Stonepeak and Evolve.

Assets and Liabilities of Consolidated VIEs

The Company's condensed consolidated financial statements include the assets, liabilities and results of operations of VIEs for which the Company is the primary beneficiary. The other equity holders’ interests are reflected in "Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests" in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and "Non-controlling interests" in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. See Note 18 for details of non-controlling interests. The Company began consolidating the assets, liabilities and results of operations of Levo during the quarter ended September 30, 2021.

The creditors of the consolidated VIE do not have recourse to the Company other than to the assets of the consolidated VIEs. The following table summarizes the carrying amounts of Levo assets and liabilities included in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets at June 30, 2023:
June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
Cash$27,393 $27,629 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets2,394 59,794 
Total Assets$29,787 $87,423 
Liabilities  
Accounts payable$8,380 $8,165 
Accrued expenses and dividend payable466,576 336,713 
Derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares353,006 359,225 
Total Liabilities$827,962 $704,103 

Redeemable Non-Controlling Interest - Mezzanine Equity
Redeemable non-controlling interest represents the shares of the preferred stock issued by Levo to Stonepeak and Evolve (the "preferred shareholders"), who own 49% of Levo common units. The preferred stock is not mandatorily redeemable or currently redeemable, but it could be redeemable with the passage of time at the election of Levo, the preferred shareholders or a triggering event as defined in the preferred stock agreement. As a result of the contingent put right available to the preferred shareholders, the redeemable non-controlling interests in Levo are classified as mezzanine equity in the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. The initial carrying value of the redeemable non-controlling interest is reported at the initial proceeds received on issuance date, reduced by the fair value of embedded derivatives resulting in an adjusted initial carrying value. The adjusted initial carrying value is further adjusted for the accretion of the difference with the redemption price value using the effective interest method. The accretion amount is a deemed dividend recorded against retained earnings or, in its absence, to additional-paid-in-capital. The carrying amount of the redeemable non-controlling interest is measured at the higher of the carrying amount adjusted each reporting period for income (or loss) attributable to the non-controlling interest, or the carrying amount adjusted each reporting period by the accretion amount. See Note 18 for details.
10

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)
Non-controlling interests
The Company presents non-controlling interests as a component of equity on its condensed consolidated balance sheets and reports the portion of its earnings or loss for non-controlling interest as net earnings or loss attributable to non-controlling interests in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Emerging Growth Company
Section 102(b)(1) of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”) permits emerging growth companies (“EGC”) to delay complying with new or revised financial accounting standards that do not yet apply to private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act). The Company qualifies as an EGC. The JOBS Act provides that an EGC can elect to opt-out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-EGCs, but any such election to opt-out is irrevocable. The Company has elected not to opt-out of such an extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an EGC, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This different adoption timing may make a comparison of the Company’s financial statements with another public company, which is neither an EGC nor an EGC that has opted out of using the extended transition period, difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that may affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include the impairment of intangible assets, the net realizable value of inventory, the fair value of share-based payments, lease incremental borrowing rate, derivative liability associated with redeemable preferred shares, revenue recognition, the fair value of warrants, and the recognition and disclosure of contingent liabilities.
Management evaluates its estimates on an ongoing basis. Actual results could materially vary from those estimates.
Cash and Restricted Cash
The Company maintains cash balances that can, at times, exceed amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which is up to $250,000. The Company has not experienced any losses in these accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk in this area. In connection with a new office lease agreement, the Company was required to provide an irrevocable, unconditional letter of credit to the landlord upon execution of the lease. The amount securing the letter of credit was recorded as restricted cash as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was $480,000.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
At June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the financial instruments which potentially expose the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of cash in financial institutions (in excess of federally insured limits) and trade receivables.

The Company had certain customers whose revenue individually represented 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue, or whose accounts receivable balances individually represented 10% or more of the Company’s total accounts receivable, as follows:

For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 two and one customers accounted for 28.4% and 27.5% of revenue, respectively. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 three and two customers accounted for 54.9% and 58.8% of revenue, respectively.

During the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company's top five customers accounted for approximately 53.5% and 52.1%, respectively, of the Company’s total revenue. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company's top five customers accounted for approximately 71.8% and 70.1%, respectively, of the Company’s total revenue.

At June 30, 2023, three customers accounted for 54.7% of accounts receivable. At December 31, 2022, three customers accounted for 40.6% of accounts receivable.

Approximately 69.2% and 53.6% of the Company’s trade accounts receivable balance was with five customers at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. The Company estimates its maximum credit risk for accounts receivable at the amount
11

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)
recorded on the balance sheet. The trade accounts receivables are generally short-term and all probable bad debt losses have been appropriately considered in establishing the allowance for doubtful accounts.

Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326) – Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 requires, among other things, the use of a new current expected credit loss ("CECL") model in determining the allowances for doubtful accounts with respect to accounts receivable, accrued straight-line rent receivable, and notes receivable. The CECL model requires that an entity estimate its lifetime expected credit loss with respect to these receivables and record allowances that, when deducted from the balance of the receivables, represent the net amounts expected to be collected. Entities will also be required to disclose information about how the entity developed the allowances, including changes in the factors that influenced its estimate of expected credit losses and the reasons for those changes. The Company adopted the guidance effective beginning January 1, 2023. The adoption of the guidance did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
None applicable.
12

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)

Note 3 – Revenue Recognition
The disclosures below discuss the Company’s material revenue contracts.
The following table provides information regarding disaggregated revenue:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Revenue recognized over time:
Services$502,286 $73,522 $853,785 $268,172 
Grants71,118 233,698 145,519 350,947 
Revenue recognized at point in time:
Products1,546,723 994,507 2,975,609 3,053,641 
Total revenue$2,120,127 $1,301,727 $3,974,913 $3,672,760 
The aggregate amount of revenue for the Company’s existing contracts and grants with customers as of June 30, 2023 expected to be recognized in the future, and classified as deferred revenue on the condensed consolidated balance sheet, for year ended December 31, is as follows (this disclosure does not include revenue related to contracts whose original expected duration is one year or less):
2023 (remaining six months)$61,468 
2024756,781 
202579,343 
202643,501 
Thereafter161,966 
Total (1)$1,103,058 
__________________
(1) The revenue recognition is subject to the completion of construction and commissioning of the EV infrastructure.

The Company operates in a single business segment, which is the EV V2G Charging segment. The following table summarizes the Company’s revenues by geography:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Revenues:
United States$1,979,610 $1,125,586 $3,738,063 $3,353,976 
United Kingdom 99,995 33,483 137,385 
Denmark140,517 76,146 203,367 181,399 
$2,120,127  $1,301,727 $3,974,913 $3,672,760 
The following table summarizes the Company’s intangible assets and property, plant and equipment in different geographic locations:
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Long-lived assets:
United States$1,707,806 $1,795,267 
United Kingdom3,611 1,335 
Denmark213,162 181,982 
$1,924,579 $1,978,584 
13

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)

Note 4 Fair Value Measurements
The following are the liabilities measured at fair value on the condensed consolidated balance sheet at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 using quoted price in active markets for identical assets (Level 1); significant other observable inputs (Level 2); and significant unobservable inputs (Level 3):
Level 1:
Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for Identical
Assets
Level 2:
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
Level 3:
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
Total at June 30,
2023
Total Gains (Losses) For The Three Months Ended June 30, 2023Total Gains (Losses) For The Six Months Ended June 30, 2023
Recurring fair value measurements
Private warrants $ $ $216 $216 $784 $1,784 
Stonepeak and Evolve unvested warrants$ $ $ $ $ $ 
Institutional/Accredited Investor warrants $ $ $290,632 $290,632 $143,010 $(71,748)
Derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares$ $ $353,006 $353,006 $83,059 $6,219 
Total recurring fair value measurements$ $ $643,854 $643,854 $226,853 $(63,745)
Level 1:
Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for Identical
Assets
Level 2:
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
Level 3:
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
Total at December 31,
2022
Total Gains (Losses) For The Three Months Ended June 30, 2022Total Gains (Losses) For The Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
Recurring fair value measurements
Private warrants$ $ $2,000 $2,000 $251,000 $684,000 
Stonepeak and Evolve unvested warrants$ $ $ $ 4,334,000 8,677,000 
Institutional/Accredited Investor warrants$ $ $218,884 $218,884 $ $ 
Derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares$ $ $359,225 $359,225 $(32,536)$20,936 
Total recurring fair value measurements$ $ $580,109 $580,109 $4,552,464 $9,381,936 
The following is a reconciliation of the opening and closing balances for the liabilities related to the warrants (Note 11) and derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023:
Private warrants Stonepeak and Evolve unvested warrants Institutional/Accredited Investor warrants Non-controlling redeemable preferred shares - derivative liability
Balance at December 31, 2022$2,000 $ $218,884 $359,225 
Total (gains) losses for period included in earnings(1,000) 214,758 76,840 
Balance at March 31, 2023$1,000 $ 433,642 $436,065 
Total (gains) losses for period included in earnings(784) (143,010)(83,059)
Balance at June 30, 2023$216 $ $290,632 $353,006 




14

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)

The fair value of the level 3 Private Warrants was estimated at June 30, 2023 using the Black-Scholes model which used the following inputs: term of 2.72 years, risk free rate of 4.60%, no dividends, volatility of 61.0%, and strike price of $11.50.

The fair value of the level 3 Private Warrants was estimated at December 31, 2022 using the Black-Scholes model which used the following inputs: term of 3.22 years, risk free rate of 4.20%, no dividends, volatility of 67.0%, and strike price of $11.50.

The fair value of the level 3 Institutional/Accredited Investor warrants was estimated at June 30, 2023 using the Black-Scholes model which used the following inputs: term of 4.60 years, risk free rate of 4.21%, no dividends, volatility of 62.0%, common stock price of $0.60, and strike price of $3.75.

The fair value of the level 3 Institutional/Accredited Investor Warrants was estimated at December 31, 2022 using the Black-Scholes model which used the following inputs: term of 5.10 years, risk free rate of 3.97%, no dividends, volatility of 62.0%, common stock price of $0.50, and strike price of $3.75.

The following table presents the significant unobservable inputs and valuation methodologies used for the Company’s fair value measurements of non-recurring (level 3) Stonepeak and Evolve unvested warrants at June 30, 2023:
Series C Unvested WarrantsSeries D Unvested WarrantsSeries E Unvested WarrantsSeries F Unvested Warrants
Fair value (in millions)$$$$
Valuation methodologyMonte Carlo Simulation & Black Scholes Monte Carlo Simulation & Black ScholesMonte Carlo Simulation & Black ScholesMonte Carlo Simulation & Black Scholes
Capital expenditure forecast (in millions)$$$$
Probability of warrants vesting (a)%%%%
__________________
(a) During the second quarter ended June 30, 2022, the Company significantly lowered its forecast of Levo's capital deployments due to the passage by the United States Congress of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act bill, and the related unveiling of the Environmental Protection Agency’s 2022 Clean School Bus rebates. The resulting lower forecast of capital deployments reduced the probabilities of the future vesting of the unvested warrants. Therefore, at June 30, 2023, the Company has determined that it is unlikely that the unvested warrants will vest.

The following table presents the significant unobservable inputs and valuation methodologies used for the Company’s fair value measurements of non-recurring (level 3) Stonepeak and Evolve unvested warrants at June 30, 2022:

Series C Unvested WarrantsSeries D Unvested WarrantsSeries E Unvested WarrantsSeries F Unvested Warrants
Fair value (in millions)$$$$
Valuation methodologyMonte Carlo Simulation & Black ScholesMonte Carlo Simulation & Black ScholesMonte Carlo Simulation & Black ScholesMonte Carlo Simulation & Black Scholes
Term (years)8.908.908.908.90
Risk free rate3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%
Exercise price$15.0$20.0$30.0$40.0
Volatility56.0%56.0%56.0%56.0%
Capital expenditure forecast (in millions)$125.0$250.0$375.0$500.0
Probability of warrants vesting (a)%%%%
__________________
(a) During the second quarter ended June 30, 2022, the Company significantly lowered its forecast of Levo's capital deployments due to the passage by the United States Congress of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act bill, and the related unveiling of the Environmental Protection Agency’s 2022 Clean School Bus rebates. The resulting lower forecast of capital deployments reduced the probabilities of the future vesting of the unvested warrants. Therefore, at June 30, 2022, the Company has determined that it is unlikely that the unvested warrants will vest.

The fair value of the level 3 derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares are estimated at June 30, 2023 using the Monte Carlo Simulation model which used the following inputs: terms range from 1.09 years to 7.0 years, risk free rate of 4.1%, no dividends, volatility of 66.0% and probability of redemptions triggered of 75.0%.

The fair value of the level 3 derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares are estimated at December 31, 2022 using the Monte Carlo Simulation model which used the following inputs: terms range from 1.60 years to 7.0 years, risk free rate of 4.0%, no dividends, volatility of 63.0% and probability of redemptions triggered of 75.0%.


15

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)

There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy in 2023 and 2022.
Cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses are generally carried on the cost basis, which management believes approximates fair value due to the short-term maturity of these instruments.

Note 5 - Derivative Liability - Non-Controlling Redeemable Preferred Stock

The Company has determined that the redemption features embedded in the non-controlling redeemable preferred stock is required to be accounted for separately from the redeemable preferred stock as a derivative liability. Separation of the redemption features as a derivative liability is required because its economic characteristics and risks are considered more akin to a debt instrument, and therefore, not considered to be clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the redeemable preferred stock. The economic characteristics of the redemption features are considered more akin to a debt instrument because the minimum redemption value could be greater than the face amount, the redemption features are contingently exercisable, and the shares carry a fixed mandatory dividend.

Accordingly, the Company has recorded an embedded derivative liability representing the estimated fair value of the right of the holders to exercise their redemption option upon the occurrence of a redemption event. The embedded derivative liability is adjusted to reflect fair value at each period end with changes in fair value recorded in the “Change in fair value of derivative
liability” financial statement line item of the company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations. For additional information on the non-controlling redeemable preferred stock, see Note 18.

The following table displays the fair value of derivatives by balance sheet line item:

June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
   
Derivative liability - non-controlling redeemable preferred shares$353,006 $359,225 


Note 6 – Investments
The Company accounts for its 13% equity ownership in Dreev as an investment in equity securities without a readily determinable fair value subject to impairment. The Company has a consulting services agreement with Dreev related to software development and operations. The consulting services were zero for each of the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022. The consulting services are being provided to Dreev at the Company’s cost and is recognized as other income, net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
In accordance with an advanced subscription agreement dated June 6, 2022, the Company invested $1.0 million in Switch EV Ltd ("Switch"), a nonpublic entity incorporated and registered in the United Kingdom through an advance subscription agreement for a future equity ownership expected be more or less than 5% subject to final valuations. Switch will automatically award the Company the equity ownership with conversion shares in equity upon its completion of either a financing round, company sale or IPO, or dissolution event. The Company is expected to account for the investment as an investment in equity securities without a readily determinable fair value subject to impairment. The Company and Switch intend to collaborate in the future to integrate technologies for the advancement of V2G. On March 30, 2023, the Company sold its investment interest in Switch for $1.3 million. A gain of $0.3 million was recorded in Other, net on the statements of operations.
16

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)

Note 7 – Account Receivables, Net
The following tables summarizes the Company's accounts receivable:
June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Trade receivables$2,046,709 $1,149,301 
Interest receivable46,736 31,227 
Less: allowance for credit losses(65,824)(58,834)
Accounts receivable, net$2,027,621  $1,121,694 
Allowance for doubtful accounts: 
Balance December 31, 2022$(58,834)
Provision 
Write-off(6,990)
Recoveries 
Balance at June 30, 2023
$(65,824)


Note 8 – Inventories
The following table summarizes the Company’s inventories balance by category:
June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
DC Chargers$6,634,042 $9,248,398 
AC Chargers164,879 123,247 
Vehicles - School Buses 1,620,000 1,620,000 
Others520,375 560,186 
Total$8,939,296 $11,551,831 


Note 9 – Property, Plant and Equipment
The following table summarizes the Company’s property, plant and equipment balance:
Useful LivesJune 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Computers & Servers1 yearto 3 years$153,524 $130,417 
Vehicles5 yearsto7 years139,788 139,788 
Office furniture and equipment3 yearsto5 years356,473 326,613 
Others (1)5 yearsto7 years309,126 256,685 
Total958,911 853,503 
Less: Accumulated Depreciation(306,253)(216,559)
Property, plant and equipment, net$652,658 $636,944 
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Depreciation expense$46,571 $36,290 $96,529 $62,265 
__________________
(1) Represents DC Chargers temporary loaned out to customers while their DC Chargers are being repaired.


17

NUVVE HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (CONTINUED)



Note 10 – Intangible Assets
At both June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had recorded a gross intangible asset balance of $2,091,556, which is related to patent and intangible property rights acquired. Amortization expense of intangible assets was $34,859 each for the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022. Amortization expense of intangible assets was $69,719 each for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022. Accumulated amortization totaled $819,635 and $749,916 at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.

The net amount of intangible assets of $1,271,921 at June 30, 2023, will be amortized over the weighted average remaining life of 9.3 years.
Total estimated future amortization expense is as follows:
2023 (remaining six months)$